Table 2: Markers based on ROS-induced modifications.

MarkersMethodsLimitations and confoundings

Lipid oxidation
HNEHPLC, GC-MS Immunoassay
MDA, alkenals, alkadienalsSpectrophotometric/fluorimetric (TBARS), HPLC (UV or fluorescence)ImmunoassaySugars, amino acids, bilirubin and albumin, hemolysis
F2-IsoPsGas/liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy techniques ImmunoassayHemolysis Antibody specificity
DNA oxidation
8oxodG, 5-chlorocytosine, 5-chlorouracil, εdA, εdCELISA assays, HPLC-ECD, HPLC/GC-MSAntibody specificity
Protein oxidation
ALEs, AGEsHPLC, Western blot after one-dimensional or two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, immunohistochemistry, ELISAStructural heterogeneity of these products Antibody specificity
CarbonilsSpectrophotometric, HPLC, ELISA
3-NO-TyrHPLC/GC-MS, ELISAPossible nitration of tyrosine residues in the sample by the presence of nitrite and the acid conditions during protein precipitation and hydrolysis Antibody specificity
AOPPMS, colorimetric assays
oxLDLImmunodetection (ELISA)Antibody specificity
IMAABC test, immunodetection (ELISA)Sensitive to pH changes, temperature, and time of sample storage Antibody specificity

8oxodG: 7,8-dihydroxy-8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine; ABC test: binding capacity of albumin for cobalt; AGEs: advanced glycation end products; ALEs: advanced lipoxigenation end products; AOPP: advanced oxidation protein products; F2-IsoPs: F2-isoprostanes; GC: gas chromatography; HNE: 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; ECD: electrochemical detection; IMA: ischemia-modified albumin; MS: mass spectroscopy; MDA: malondialdehyde; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.