A Carotenoid Extract from a Southern Italian Cultivar of Pumpkin Triggers Nonprotective Autophagy in Malignant Cells
CEN reduces proliferation in SAOs cells upon AMPK activation. Western blot analysis of phosphorylated and active form (pAMPKThr172) of AMPK in SAOs cells (a) treated for 24 h with NE and CEN (200 μg/ml, w/v). ATRA (2 μM) was used as positive control. Densitometric analysis (numbers between panels) is expressed as the ratio between pAMPK thr172 and α-tubulin band intensities. AMPK activator, AICAR, reduces cell proliferation (b). Cells were incubated for the indicated times with 0.1 mM AICAR, and CyQuant assay was performed as described in Materials and Methods. Bar graphs represent the mean ± SD; symbols indicate significance and with respect to untreated cells.