(a)
(b)
Figure 8: Young and aged vascular comparison in two different perspectives. In vascular aging, the remodelling occurs due to the accumulation of senescent and dysfunctional cells in response to the environmental changes caused by age. (a) In the aged vessel, there is a loss of the vessel elasticity, due to the raises of contracting factors, plus an increase in the number of muscle cells. These factors combined drive towards the matrix change, with inflammatory infiltrates and fibrosis, leading to vascular hypertrophy. (b) In young blood, there is a predominance of growth factors, in addition to healthy cells of immunity and progenitor cells driving towards vascular “cleaning” and regeneration, respectively. In the aged blood, it is checked that there is a predominance in proinflammatory factors, released largely by senescent cells. The senescent cells accumulate with age in response to a failure of the immune system, a term known as immunosenescence. In addition, there is an increase in fibroblast proliferation, leading to a stressful environment related to the vascular remodelling.