The Neuroprotective Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis on Neurodegenerative Damage in Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells
Effect of methanol extracts of propolis on Arc expression in SH-SY5Y cells. (a) Dose-dependent effects of propolis on Arc mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y cells at 30 min after incubation. (b) Time-dependent effects of 10 μg/mL propolis on Arc mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y cells. (c) Effects of specific inhibitors on Arc protein expression. GF109203X hydrochloride (protein kinase C inhibitor, 200 μM), Y-27632 dihydrochloride (Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor, 1 μM), and Wortmannin (phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, 200 nM) were pretreated for 1 h, followed by incubation with 10 μg/mL propolis for 30 min. (d) The quantitative analyses of Arc protein expression. (e) The expression of Arc after treatment with Artepillin C (20 μM) and pretreatment with Wortmannin. (f) The quantitative analysis of Arc protein expression shown in (e). The results are expressed as the mean ± SEM ( each), and the asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference from the control value or propolis-treated group (, ).
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