Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2017 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Modulatory Mechanism of Polyphenols and Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in LPS Challenged Pregnancy Disorders

Figure 1

LPS-induced abortion by regulating strong cellular network. After induction of LPS, binding protein interacts with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and activates downstream adaptor proteins MYD-88, which subsequently stimulate IKK complex, resulting in ubiquitination and phosphorylation of IkBα proteins that translocate NF-κB into the nucleus for production of several proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6, and PGF2E which causes microvascular damage leading to thrombosis, ischemia, necrosis of decidual cells, and finally abortion. On the other hand, flavonoids prevent abortion by inhibition of IKK complex proteins and bring NF-κB into its inactivated form in cytoplasm. These beneficial effects of flavonoids are mediated by activation of PI3K/Akt pathway; hence, it prevents development of free radicals by supplementation of flavonoids during pregnancy.