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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8519169, 16 pages
Research Article

ROS-Dependent Activation of Autophagy through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway Is Induced by Hydroxysafflor Yellow A-Sonodynamic Therapy in THP-1 Macrophages

1Department of Pathophysiology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
2Division of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Liming Yang

Received 29 October 2016; Revised 10 December 2016; Accepted 21 December 2016; Published 16 January 2017

Academic Editor: Jun Ren

Copyright © 2017 Yueqing Jiang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Monocyte-derived macrophages participate in infaust inflammatory responses by secreting various types of proinflammatory factors, resulting in further inflammatory reactions in atherosclerotic plaques. Autophagy plays an important role in inhibiting inflammation; thus, increasing autophagy may be a therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis. In the present study, hydroxysafflor yellow A-mediated sonodynamic therapy was used to induce autophagy and inhibit inflammation in THP-1 macrophages. Following hydroxysafflor yellow A-mediated sonodynamic therapy, autophagy was induced as shown by the conversion of LC3-II/LC3-I, increased expression of beclin 1, degradation of p62, and the formation of autophagic vacuoles. In addition, inflammatory factors were inhibited. These effects were blocked by Atg5 siRNA, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, and the reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetyl cysteine. Moreover, AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and mTOR phosphorylation at Ser2448 decreased significantly after HSYA-SDT. These effects were inhibited by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, the AKT inhibitor triciribine, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, mTOR siRNA, and N-acetyl cysteine. Our results demonstrate that HSYA-SDT induces an autophagic response via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and inhibits inflammation by reactive oxygen species in THP-1 macrophages.