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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9185272, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9185272
Research Article

Low Glucose Concentrations Induce a Similar Inflammatory Response in Monocytes from Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Healthy Subjects

1Department of Medicine (DIMED), University of Padova, Padova, Italy
2Regional Coordination Centre for Rare Diseases, University Hospital of Udine, Udine, Italy
3Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences (DSF), University of Padova, Padova, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Giovanni Sartore; ti.dpinu@erotras.g

Received 21 April 2017; Revised 2 August 2017; Accepted 9 October 2017; Published 31 October 2017

Academic Editor: Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar

Copyright © 2017 Francesco Piarulli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study aims to assess the proinflammatory interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by monocytes from 38 patients with type 2 diabetes and 31 controls in different glucose concentrations. Monocytes were incubated in low (2.5 mmol/L)-, normal (5.0 mmol/L)-, and high (20 mmol/L)-glucose conditions in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Monocytes from both patients and controls only produced a significant increase in IL-1β in low-glucose conditions (), and this phenomenon was amplified in the presence of LPS, while it was not seen in normal- or high-glucose conditions, not even in the presence of LPS stimulation. There was no increase in IL-10 production by monocytes from either diabetic patients or controls using whatever glucose concentrations, except when treated with LPS in normal-glucose conditions. These findings seem to suggest that low-glucose conditions induce an inflammatory response in monocytes in all individuals, as an intrinsic capacity of this cell line. On the other hand, monocytes only retain their anti-inflammatory ability in response to known inflammatory stimuli such as LPS, under normal-glucose concentrations. In conclusion, human monocytes express an inflammatory pattern in low-glucose conditions in vitro. This response could contribute to explaining the higher cardiovascular risk induced by hypoglycemia in diabetic patients.