Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages
Inhibitory effect of common and tartary buckwheat sprout extracts on LPS-induced (a) IL-6, (b) IL-12, and (c) TNF-α cytokine production and LPS-induced (d) IL-6, (e) IL-12, and (f) TNF-α mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to sprout extracts together with LPS (1 μg/mL). Level of cytokine expression in the culture media was measured using ELISA. mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Data represent the means ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. ## and ### in comparison with untreated controls; significant difference was determined using unpaired Student’s t-test. ††† indicates in comparison to cells treated with LPS alone (unpaired Student’s t-test). , , and in comparison with cells treated with LPS alone by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test for multiple comparison.