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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 9759735, 27 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9759735
Review Article

Markers and Biomarkers of Endothelium: When Something Is Rotten in the State

1Research Institute of Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology, Saint Petersburg, Russia
2Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russia
3Institute of Cell Biophysics RAS, Pushchino, Russia
4School of Allied Health Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
5Koltsov Institute of Developmental Biology RAS, Moscow, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed to Nikolay V. Goncharov; moc.liamg@vorahcnogn

Received 7 March 2017; Accepted 5 September 2017; Published 23 November 2017

Academic Editor: Domenico D'Arca

Copyright © 2017 Nikolay V. Goncharov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Endothelium is a community of endothelial cells (ECs), which line the blood and lymphatic vessels, thus forming an interface between the tissues and the blood or lympha. This strategic position of endothelium infers its indispensable functional role in controlling vasoregulation, haemostasis, and inflammation. The state of endothelium is simultaneously the cause and effect of many diseases, and this is coupled with modifications of endothelial phenotype represented by markers and with biochemical profile of blood represented by biomarkers. In this paper, we briefly review data on the functional role of endothelium, give definitions of endothelial markers and biomarkers, touch on the methodological approaches for revealing biomarkers, present an implicit role of endothelium in some toxicological mechanistic studies, and survey the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in modulation of endothelial status.