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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 9824192, 11 pages
Research Article

Impact of Hot Environment on Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance, Renal Damage, Hemolysis, and Immune Activation Postmarathon

1Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Sciences, University of Cruzeiro do Sul, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3Sports Cardiology Department, Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology, São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Maria Fernanda Cury-Boaventura; rb.ude.lusodoriezurc@arutnevaob.airam

Received 2 June 2017; Revised 9 August 2017; Accepted 26 October 2017; Published 21 December 2017

Academic Editor: Andrey J. Serra

Copyright © 2017 Rodrigo Assunção Oliveira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Previous studies have demonstrated the physiological changes induced by exercise exposure in hot environments. We investigated the hematological and oxidative changes and tissue damage induced by marathon race in different thermal conditions. Twenty-six male runners completed the São Paulo International Marathon both in hot environment (HE) and in temperate environment (TE). Blood and urine samples were collected 1 day before, immediately after, 1 day after, and 3 days after the marathon to analyze the hematological parameters, electrolytes, markers of tissue damage, and oxidative status. In both environments, the marathon race promotes fluid and electrolyte imbalance, hemolysis, oxidative stress, immune activation, and tissue damage. The marathon runner’s performance was approximately 13.5% lower in HE compared to TE; however, in HE, our results demonstrated more pronounced fluid and electrolyte imbalance, renal damage, hemolysis, and immune activation. Moreover, oxidative stress induced by marathon in HE is presumed to be related to protein/purine oxidation instead of other oxidative sources. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance and protein/purine oxidation may be important factors responsible for hemolysis, renal damage, immune activation, and impaired performance after long-term exercise in HE. Nonetheless, we suggested that the impairment on performance in HE was not associated to the muscle damage and lipoperoxidation.