Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2018 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

Anticancer Properties of Graviola (Annona muricata): A Comprehensive Mechanistic Review

Figure 3

Overview of the molecular actions of A. muricata (graviola) leading to anticancer and other health benefits. Extracts of the different aerial parts of A. muricata using several solvents have been shown to induce cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and necrosis and, conversely, to inhibit cancer cell motility, migration, metastasis, and proliferation. Other reported health benefits include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. Our current understanding is that graviola components modulate several cellular processes including inhibition of signaling pathways downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with others causing downregulation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), RAS, NF-κB, and JAK/STAT [31]. Further actions include inhibition of HIF-1α, GLUT1, and GLUT4 [28]; proinflammatory cytokine expression (inflammation); and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via upregulatoin of enzyme systems like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and heme-oxygenase (HO-1) expression [39, 54, 89, 124].

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