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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018, Article ID 2987249, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2987249
Research Article

Characterization of the Antioxidant Effects of γ-Oryzanol: Involvement of the Nrf2 Pathway

1Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
2Scuola Universitaria Superiore IUSS Pavia, Pavia, Italy
3Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to D. Uberti; ti.sbinu@itrebu.aleinad

Received 7 August 2017; Accepted 23 January 2018; Published 14 March 2018

Academic Editor: Carla S. Oliveira

Copyright © 2018 W. Rungratanawanich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

γ-Oryzanol (ORY) is well known for its antioxidant potential. However, the mechanism by which ORY exerts its antioxidant effect is still unclear. In this paper, the antioxidant properties of ORY were investigated for its potential effects as a reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) scavenger and in activating antioxidant-promoting intracellular pathways utilizing the human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). The 24 h ORY exposure significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced ROS/RNS production at 3 h, and this effect was sustained for at least 24 h. ORY pretreatment also enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Interestingly, ORY induced the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and upregulation of Nrf2-dependent defensive genes such as NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione synthetase (GSS) at mRNA and protein levels in both basal condition and after H2O2 insult. Thus, this study suggested an intriguing effect of ORY in modulating the Nrf2 pathway, which is also involved in regulating longevity as well as age-related diseases.