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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 3082438, 15 pages
Research Article

Damaging Effects of Bisphenol A on the Kidney and the Protection by Melatonin: Emerging Evidences from In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Renal Physiology Unit, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

Correspondence should be addressed to Orawan Wongmekiat

Received 21 July 2017; Revised 11 December 2017; Accepted 31 December 2017; Published 18 February 2018

Academic Editor: Serafina Perrone

Copyright © 2018 Anongporn Kobroob et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study investigates the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) contamination on the kidney and the possible protection by melatonin in experimental rats and isolated mitochondrial models. Rats exposed to BPA (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 weeks demonstrated renal damages as evident by increased serum urea and creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance, together with the presence of proteinuria and glomerular injuries in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Mitochondrial dysfunction was also evident as indicated by increased reactive oxygen species production, decreased membrane potential change, and mitochondrial swelling. Coadministration of melatonin resulted in the reversal of all the changes caused by BPA. Studies using isolated mitochondria showed that BPA incubation produced dose-dependent impairment in mitochondrial function. Preincubation with melatonin was able to sustain mitochondrial function and architecture and decreases oxidative stress upon exposure to BPA. The findings indicated that BPA is capable of acting directly on the kidney mitochondria, causing mitochondrial oxidative stress, dysfunction, and subsequently, leading to whole organ damage. Emerging evidence further suggests the protective benefits of melatonin against BPA nephrotoxicity, which may be mediated, in part, by its ability to diminish oxidative stress and maintain redox equilibrium within the mitochondria.