Effects of Vitamin D3 on the NADPH Oxidase and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 in an Animal Model of Global Cerebral Ischemia
(a) Expression of NeuN. Group I () was sham-operated animals, which underwent the same surgical procedure without vessel occlusion (control), group II () was subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and group III () was treated with vitamin D3 and then subjected to I/R (). All experiments were performed in synaptosomal fraction in different brain structures. (b) Immunohistochemical staining of NeuN-positive cells in gerbil brain slices. Magnification of the upper and lower images is 100x and 200x, respectively. (c) Number of cells per field in group I (sham-operated animals), group II (subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)), and group III (treated with vitamin D3 and then subjected to I/R ()). (d) The TEM analysis of neurons. (Left) The neuronal cell from the control group shows late endosomes (LE) with an intact membrane, ribosomes (R), and mitochondria (M) (bar = 1 μm). (Middle) The neuron after I/R shows late endosome with membrane rupture, accumulation of transport vesicles (TV), and more ribosomes (bar = 0.5 μm). (Right) The neuron cell after the procedure shows intact endosome, some vesicles, Golgi apparatus (G), and rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (bar = 1 μm).
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