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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018, Article ID 3732842, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3732842
Research Article

Protective Effect of Increased Zinc Supply against Oxidative Damage of Sublingual Gland in Chronic Exposure to Cadmium: Experimental Study on Rats

1Department of Restorative Dentistry, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland
2Medical University of Białystok and Private Dental Practice in Białystok, Białystok, Poland
3Department of Social and Preventive Dentistry, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland

Correspondence should be addressed to Barbara M. Onopiuk; moc.liamg@aksworbad.airam.arabrab

Received 18 April 2018; Accepted 20 June 2018; Published 4 July 2018

Academic Editor: Patricia Morales

Copyright © 2018 Paula Kostecka-Sochoń et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cadmium is one of the main chemical pollutants found in the daily environment of developed countries. Cigarettes are a significant source of that metal, which makes it important in terms of oral cavity health. The aim of this study was to determine if increased supply of zinc in chronic exposure to cadmium might protect the sublingual gland structure against oxidative damage. The experiment took 12 months and was conducted on 72 adult male rats. They were randomized into 9 groups. Eight groups received cadmium in drinking water (as CdCl2) at 5 or 50 mg Cd/dm3 and/or zinc (as ZnCl2) at 30 or 60 mg Zn/dm3. The control group received regular water. In the sublingual gland of all animal groups, levels of oxidative parameters were measured. The oxidative stress index was calculated as a TOS/TAS ratio. Cadmium exposure at 5 mg and 50 mg Cd/dm3 induced oxidative stress in the sublingual glands of the rats. Cadmium reduced the TAS and GSH levels and increased LPO, H2O2, TOS, and OSI. In cadmium exposure conditions, increasing the supply of zinc by 79% or 151%, as compared to the standard dietary intake of this microelement, completely prevented the reduction of TAS and GSH levels and accumulation of LPO, H2O2, and TOS in the examined gland at both exposure levels to that metal. The outcome data confirm the protective effect of increased zinc intake on the sublingual gland tissue in chronic cadmium exposure.