Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

An Overview on the Anti-inflammatory Potential and Antioxidant Profile of Eugenol

Table 1

Modulation of inflammatory response mediated by eugenol.

Experimental modelAnimal and/or cells linesDose or concentration of eugenolInflammatory parameters evaluatedBiological effectReferences

In vitro and in vivo leukocyte migration induced by fMLP, LTB4, and carrageenanBALB/c mice0.5, 1, 3, 9, or 27 μg/mL
62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg
Leukocyte migrationDecreased the number of leukocytes that rolled, adhered, and migrated to perivascular tissue[50]
Model of allergic asthmaBALB/c mice10 or 20 mg/kgCytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) levels, histological assessment, and VDUP1/NF-κB signaling pathwaysInhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia, recovered IL-4 and IL-5 levels, inhibited P-IκBα, NF-κBP65, and p-NF-κBP65 protein levels, and increased VDUP1 and IκBα protein levels.[51]
LPS-induced inflammatory reaction in acute lung injuryBALB/c mice5 or 10 mg/kgActivities of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST) and inflammatory markers (MPO, IL-6, and TNF-α) and inflammatory cells recruitmentReduced the IL-6 and TNF-α expression, suppressed NF-κB signaling, decreased the leukocyte recruitment, and increased the protein levels (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST)[41]
LPS-induced lung injuryBALB/c mice160 mg/kg bodyInflammatory cells, TNF-α, and NF-κB levelsReduced the neutrophil recruitment, macrophages, TNF-α, and NF-κB expression[52]
Diesel exhaust particles induced pulmonary damageBALB/c mice164 mg/kgAmounts of polymorpho (PMN) and mononuclear cells, apoptosis, and oxidative stressPrevented the PMN infiltration, reduced apoptosis through caspase-3 cleavage, but limited the effects on oxidative stress[53]
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuryWistar rats10 or 100 mg/kgInflammatory markers (MPO, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65) and oxidative stress (GSH and MDA)Reduced MPO, TNF-α, NF-κB, and MDA. Eugenol also increased GSH levels.[54]
Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarctionWistar rats100 mg/kgCells inflammatory infiltration, oxidative stress, and protein biomarker (α1, α2, β1, β2, and γ globulin)Reduction of inflammatory cells infiltration and mediators proteins, increased SOD, GPx, and GSH, with reduction of TBARS[55]
LPS-induced inflammatory signalizingMacrophage RAW 264.71, 10, 50, or 100 μMInflammatory markers (NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κB), regulatory enzymes (iNOS), and signal transduction (Akt, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK)Reduced NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-κB, and iNOS expression. Eugenol also decreased the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways[57]
LPS-activated peritoneal macrophagesBALB/c mice0.31, 0.62, 1.24, or 2.48 μg/mLCOX-2, NF-κB, and TNF-α expression in resting macrophagesPromoted hypoexpression of TNF-α, but not COX-2 or NF-κB[58]
RANKL-induced osteoclast formationRAW264.7 murine macrophages50, 100, or 200 μMDegradation of IkBα and NF-κB, MAPK activationAttenuated the degradation of IkBa, activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways[5]
Alveolar bone deformities in an ovariectomized (OVX) rodent modelWistar rats2.5 or 5 mg/kgHistopathology and inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α)Reduced the inflammatory cell infiltrate, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels[60]
LPS-induced inflammationHuman dental pulp fibroblasts13 μMGenes expression (NF-κB, IL-1β, and TNF-α)Inhibition of TNF-α expression and NF-κB signaling pathway, but not IL-1β levels[62]
Cutaneous chemical carcinogenesisSwiss mice15% (v/v)Inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, COX-2, and iNOS) and oxidative stress (MDA, GSH, GPx, GR, CAT, and GST)Reduced the IL-6, TNF-α, PGE2, COX, and iNOS levels. Eugenol also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH content and activities of GR, CAT, GPx, and GST[40]
Ability to interfere with cell growthHeLa cells300 μMGenes expression (COX-2 and IL-1β)Reduced the COX-2 and IL-1β expression[63]
Cisplatin-mediated toxicityMDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and BT-20 cells0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.5 μMGene expression (NF-κB, IL-1β, and TNF-α)Reduced NF-κB, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression[23]
Postoperative alveolar osteitis in patients having third molars extractedHuman0.2% chlorhexidine gel, a eugenol-based pastePostoperative pain, inflammation, infection, and wound healingReduced the incidence of alveolar osteitis, pain, inflammation, infection, and better wound healing compared to control group[65]
Carrageenan-induced paw edemaRats1, 2, or 4%Paw edemaInhibited the inflammation, reducing the edema[64]