Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 4757893, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4757893
Review Article

Honey and Diabetes: The Importance of Natural Simple Sugars in Diet for Preventing and Treating Different Type of Diabetes

1Life Sciences Institute “King Michael I of Romania”, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Technology Department, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Correspondence should be addressed to Adela Ramona Moise; or.julcvmasu@esiom.aleda

Received 21 August 2017; Revised 21 November 2017; Accepted 24 December 2017; Published 4 February 2018

Academic Editor: Undurti N. Das

Copyright © 2018 Otilia Bobiş et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. E. Shaw, R. A. Sicree, and P. Z. Zimmet, “Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030,” Diabetic Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 4–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Wei, S. P. Gaskill, S. M. Haffner, and M. P. Stern, “Effects of diabetes and level of glycemia on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: the San Antonio Heart Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1167–1172, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. L. M. Barr, P. Z. Zimmet, T. A. Welborn et al., “Risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. G. R. Kokil, P. V. Rewatkar, A. Verma, S. Thareja, and S. R. Naik, “Pharmacology and chemistry of diabetes mellitus and antidiabetic drugs: a critical review,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 35, pp. 4405–4423, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Roglic and N. Unwin, “Mortality attributable to diabetes: estimates for the year 2010,” Diabetic Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Beretta, P. Granata, M. Ferrero, M. Orioli, and R. M. Facino, “Standardization of antioxidant properties of honey by a combination of spectrophotometric/fluorimetric assays and chemometrics,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 533, no. 2, pp. 185–191, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Bertoncelj, T. Golob, U. Dobersek, and M. Jamnik, “Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and color of Slovenian honey,” Food Chemistry, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 822–828, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. A. Mărghitaş, D. Dezmirean, A. Moise, O. Bobiş, L. Laslo, and S. Bogdanov, “Physico-chemical and bioactive properties of different floral origin honeys from Romania,” Food Chemistry, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 863–867, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. M. Alvarez-Suarez, S. Tulipani, D. Díaz et al., “Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several monofloral Cuban honeys and their correlation with color, polyphenol content and other chemical compounds,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 8-9, pp. 2490–2499, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. O. O. Erejuwa, S. A. Sulaiman, M. S. Wahab, K. N. S. Sirajudeem, S. Salleh, and S. Gurtu, “Antioxidant protective effect of glibenclamide and metformin in combination with honey in pancreas of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” International Journal of Molecular Science, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 2056–2066, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. O. O. Erejuwa, S. Gurtu, S. A. Sulaiman, M. S. Ab Wahab, K. N. Sirajudeen, and M. S. Salleh, “Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of honey supplementation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 74–82, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. O. O. Erejuwa, S. A. Sulaiman, and M. S. Wahab, “Hepatoprotective effect of Tualang honey supplementation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” International Journal of Applied Research and Natural Products, vol. 4, pp. 37–41, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  13. R. M. Galal, H. F. Zaki, M. M. Seif El-Nasr, and A. M. Agha, “Potential protective effect of honey against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 674–680, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Asaduzzaman, M. Sohanur Rahman, S. Munira et al., “Effects of honey supplementation on hepatic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) marker in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 9, p. 592, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. K. Rakha, Z. I. Nabil, and A. A. Hussein, “Cardioactive and vasoactive effects of natural wild honey against cardiac malperformance induced by hyperadrenergic activity,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 91–98, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Yaghoobi, N. Al-Waili, M. Ghayour-Mobarhan et al., “Natural honey and cardiovascular risk factors; effects on blood glucose, colesterol, triacylglycerole, CRP and body weight compared with sucrose,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 8, pp. 463–469, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. D. I. Khalil, E. M. Tanvir, R. Afroz, S. A. Sulaiman, and S. H. Gan, “Cardioprotective effects of tualang honey: amelioration of cholesterol and cardiac enzymes levels,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 286051, 8 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. J. Weston, “The contribution of catalase and other natural products to the antibacterial activity of honey: a review,” Food Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 235–239, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. T. Tan, R. A. Rahman, and S. H. Gan, “The antibacterial properties of Malaysian Tualang honey against wound and enteric microorganisms in comparison to Manuka honey,” BMC Complementary and Alternatively Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. D. Mandal and S. Mandal, “Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 154–160, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. P. Mohapatra, V. Thakur, and S. K. Brar, “Antibacterial efficacy of raw and processed honey,” Biotechnology Research International, vol. 2011, Article ID 917505, 6 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. E. N. Hammond and E. S. Donkor, “Antibacterial effect of Manuka honey on Clostridium difficile,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 188, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. K. Nishio, J. M. Ribeiro, A. G. Oliveira et al., “Antibacterial synergic effect of honey from two stingless bees: Scaptotrigona bipunctata Lepeletier, 1836 and S. postica Latreille, 1807,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, no. 1, article 21641, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. J. J. van den Berg, E. van den Worm, H. C. Q. van Ufford, S. B. A. Halkes, M. J. Hoechstra, and C. J. Beukelman, “An in vitro examination of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of buckwheat honey,” Journal of Wound Care, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 172–178, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. M. Kassim, M. Achoui, M. R. Mustafa, M. A. Mohd, and K. M. Yusoff, “Ellagic acid, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Malaysian honey extracts demonstrate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity,” Nutrition Research, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 650–659, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. M. Borsato, A. S. Pridente, P. M. Doll-Boscardin et al., “Topical anti-inflammatory activity of a monofloral honey of Mimosa scabrella provided by Melipona marginata during winter in southern Brazil,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 817–825, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. S. Yaacob, A. Nengsih, and M. N. Norazmi, “Tualang honey promotes apoptotic cell death induced by tamoxifen in breast cancer cell lines,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternatively Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 989841, 9 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. M. Alvarez-Suarez, F. Giampieri, and M. Battino, “Honey as a source of dietary antioxidants: structures, bioavailability and evidence of protective effects against human chronic diseases,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 621–638, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. K. Bulut and F. G. Tüfekci, “Honey prevents oral mocositis in children undergoing chemotherapy: a quasi-experimental study with a control group,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 29, pp. 132–140, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. M. Porcza, C. Simms, and M. Chopra, “Honey and cancer: current status and future directions,” Diseases, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1–26, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. M. Bahrami, A. Ataie-Jafari, S. Hosseini, M. H. Foruzanfar, M. Rahmani, and M. Pajouhi, “Effects of natural honey consumption in diabetic patients: an 8-week randomized clinical trial,” International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 618–626, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. Deibert, D. KOnig, B. Kloock, M. Groenefeld, and A. Berg, “Glycaemkic and insulinaemic properties of some German honey varieties,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 762–764, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. O. O. Erejuwa, S. A. Sulaiman, M. S. Wahab, S. K. N. Salam, S. Salleh, and S. Gurtu, “Comparison of antioxidant effects of honey, glibenclamide, metformin and their combinations in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 829–843, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. Münstedt, M. Bohme, A. Hauenschild, and I. Hrgovic, “Consumption of rapeseed honey leads to higher serum fructose levels compared with analogue glucose/fructose solutions,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 77–80, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. P. Bantle, “Dietary fructose and metabolic sindrome and diabetes,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 139, no. 6, pp. 1263S–1268S, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. Al-Waili, “Intrapulmonary administration of natural honey solution, hyperosmolar dextrose or hypoosmolar distill water to normal individuals and to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension: their effects on blood glucose level, plasma insulin and C-peptide, blood pressure and peaked expiratory flow rate,” European Journal of Medical Research, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 295–303, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  37. M. E. Cortés, P. Vigil, and G. Montenegro, “The medicinal value of honey: a review on its benefits on human health, with a special focus on its effects on glycemic regulation,” Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 303–317, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. S. Kwon, Y. J. Kim, and M. K. Kim, “Effect of fructose or sucrose feeding with different levels on oral glucose tolerance test in normal and type 2 diabetic rats,” Nutrition Research and Practice, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 252–258, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. O. O. Erejuwa, S. A. Sulaiman, and M. S. Wahab, “Fructose might contribute to the hypoglycemic effect of honey,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1900–1915, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. L. Kellet, E. Brot-Laroche, and O. J. Mace, “Sugar absorption in the intestine: the role of GLUT2,” Annual Reviews of Nutrition, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 35–54, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. H. Moran and P. R. McHugh, “Distinction among three sugars in their effects on gastric emptying and satiety,” American Journal of Physiology Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 241, no. 1, pp. R25–R30, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. P. C. Gregory, M. McFadyen, and D. V. Rayner, “Relation between gastric emptying and short-term regulation of food intake in the pig,” Physiology & Bahaviour, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 677–683, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. L. Thibault, “Dietary carbohydrates: effects on self-selection, plasma glucose and insulin and brain indoleaminergic systems in rat,” Appetite, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 275–286, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. J. Meirelles, L. A. Oliveira, A. A. Jordao, and A. M. Navarro, “Metabolic effects of the ingestion of different fructose sources in rats,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 218–220, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Fujisawa, J. Riby, and N. Kretchmer, “Intestinal absorption of fructose in the rat,” Gastroenterology, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 360–367, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. K. Ushijima, J. E. Riby, T. Fujisawa, and N. Kretchmer, “Absorption of fructose by isolated small intestine of rats is via a specific saturable carrier in the absence of glucose and by the disaccharide-related transport system in the presence of glucose,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 125, no. 8, pp. 2156–2164, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  47. O. O. Erejuwa, S. A. Sulaiman, M. S. Wahab, K. N. S. Sirajudeen, M. S. Salleh, and S. Gurtu, “Antioxidant protection of Malaysian Tualang honey in pancreas of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Annales d’Endocronologie, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 291–296, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Shiota, P. Galassetti, and K. Igawa, “Inclusion of low amounts of fructose with an intraportal glucose load increases net hepatic glucose uptake in the presence of relative insulin deficiency in dog,” American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 288, no. 6, pp. E1160–E1167, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T. Iburi, H. Izumiyama, and Y. Hirata, “Endocrine glands of pancreas,” Nihon Rinsho, vol. 69, pp. 95–99, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  50. J. L. Sievenpiper, R. J. de Souza, A. Mirrahimi et al., “Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feefing trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 291–304, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. N. Vaisman, E. Niv, and Y. Izkhakov, “Catalytic amounts of fructose may improve glucose tolerance in subjects with uncontrolled non-insulin-dependent diabetes,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 617–621, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. F. Petersen, D. Laurent, C. Yu, G. W. Cline, and G. I. Shulman, “Stimulating effects of low-dose fructose on insulin-stimulated hepatic glycogen synthesis in humans,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1263–1268, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. K. L. Teff, S. S. Elliott, M. Tschop et al., “Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 2963–2972, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. Ionescu-Târgovişte, E. Popa, E. Sintu, N. Mihalache, D. Cheta, and I. Mincu, “Blood glucose and plasma insulin responses to various carbohydrates in type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 80–84, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. L. Sunehag, G. Toffolo, M. Campioni, D. M. Bier, and M. W. Haymond, “Short-term high dietary fructose intake had no effects on insulin sensitivity and secretion or glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy, obese adolescents,” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 225–235, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. E. T. Ngo Sock, K. A. Le, M. Ith, R. Kreis, C. Boesch, and L. Tappy, “Effects of a short-term overfeeding with fructose or glucose in healthy young males,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 07, pp. 939–943, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. E. Bocarsly, E. S. Powell, N. M. Avena, and B. G. Hoebel, “High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels,” Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 101–106, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. C. Dolan, S. M. Potter, and G. A. Burdock, “Evidence-based review on the effect of normal dietary consumption of fructose on blood lipids and body weight of overweight and obese individuals,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 889–918, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Madero, J. C. Arriaga, D. Jalal et al., “The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial,” Metabolism Clinical and Experimental, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1551–1559, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. V. S. Malik, M. B. Schulze, and F. B. Hu, “Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 274–288, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  61. R. L. Jentjens, K. Underwood, J. Achten, K. Currell, C. H. Mann, and A. E. Jeukendrup, “Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates are elevated after combined ingestion of glucose and fructose during exercise in the heat,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 807–816, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. G. Prieto, J. Cancelas, M. L. Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, and I. Valverde, “Plasma D-glucose, D-fructose and insulin responses after oral administration of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose to normal rats,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 414–419, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. Srinivasan, B. Viswanad, L. Asrrat, C. L. Kaul, and P. Ramaro, “Combination of high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-treated rat: a model for type 2 diabetes and pharmacological screening,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 313–320, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Lenzen, “The mechanisms of alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 216–226, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. S. Akhtar and M. S. Khan, “Glycemic responses to three different types of honeys given to normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits,” Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 107–113, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  66. A. A. Fasanmade and O. T. Alabi, “Differential effects of honey on selected variables in alloxan-induced and fructose-induced diabetic rats,” African Journal of Biomedical Research, vol. 11, no. 20, pp. 191–196, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  67. L. M. Chepulis, “The effect of honey compared to sucrose, mixed sugars and a sugar free diet on weight gain in young rats,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. S224–S229, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Chepulis and N. Starkey, “The long-term effects of feeding honey compared with sucrose and a sugar-free diet on weight gain, lipid profiles and DEXA measurements in rats,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. H1–H7, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. Busseroles, E. Gueux, and E. Rock, “Substituting honey for refined carbohydrates protects rats from hypertriglyceridemic and prooxidative effects of fructose,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 132, pp. 3379–3382, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  70. T. M. Nemoseck, E. G. Carmody, and A. Furchner-Evanson, “Honey promotes lower weight gain, adiposity, and tryglycerides than sucrose in rats,” Nutrition Research, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. O. O. Erejuwa, S. A. Sulaiman, M. S. Wahab, K. N. S. Sirajudeen, and M. S. Salzihan, “Effects of Malaysian Tualang honey supplementation on glycemia, free radical scavenging enzymes and markers of oxidative stress in kidneys of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 137, article S45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. A. Ahmad, M. K. Azim, M. A. Mesaik, and R. A. Khan, “Natural honey modulates physiological glycemic response compared to simulated honey and D-glucose,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. H165–H167, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Abdulrahman, M. El-Hefnawy, R. Hussein, and A. A. El-Goud, “The glycemic and peak incremental indices of honey, sucrose and glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: effects on C-peptide level – a pilot study,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 89–94, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. N. S. Al-Waili, “Identification of nitric oxide metabolites in various honeys: effects of intravenous honey on plasma and urinary nitric oxide metabolites concentration,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 359–364, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. N. S. Al-Waili, “Investigating the antimicrobial activity of natural honey and its effects on the pathogenic bacterial infections of surgical wounds and conjunctiva,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 210–222, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. O. P. Agrawal, A. Pachauri, H. Yadav et al., “Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance exhibit a high degree of tolerance to honey,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 473–478, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. Gheldorf, X. H. Wang, and N. J. Engeseth, “Buckwheat honey increases serum antioxidant capacity in humans,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1500–1505, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. N. S. Al-Waili, “Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 100–107, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. E. Van Schaftingen and A. Vandercammen, “Stimulation of glucose phosphorylation by fructose in isolated rat hepatocytes,” The FEBS Journal, vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 173–177, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. A. Abdulrhman, “Honey as a sole treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Endocrynology & Metabolic Syndrome, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 232, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. D. J. Jenkins, T. M. Wolever, R. H. Taylor et al., “Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 362–366, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  82. Y. Ido, A. Vindigni, and K. Chang, “Prevention of vascular and neural dysfunction in diabetic rats by C-peptide,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5325, pp. 563–566, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. Elliot, N. Keim, and J. Stern, “Fructose, weight gain and the insulin,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, pp. 911–922, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  84. M. Watford, “Small amounts of dietary fructose dramatically increase hepatic glucose uptake through a Novel Mechanism of Glucokinase Activation,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 253–257, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. Soylu, T. Atayoğlu, N. Incaç, and S. Silici, “Glycemic index values of multifloral Turkish honeys and effect of their consumption on glucose metabolism,” Journal of Apicultural Research, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 155–162, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. F. Atkinson, K. Powell, and J. Brandt-Miller, “International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2281–2283, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. H. Rasad, A. Dashtabi, M. Khansari et al., “The effect of honey consumption compared with sucrose on blood pressure and fasting blood glucose in healthy young subjects,” Global Journal of Medicine Research and Studies, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 117–121, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  88. M. Abdulrhman, M. El Hefnawy, R. Ali, I. Abdel Hamid, A. Abou El-Goud, and D. Refai, “Effects of honey, sucrose and glucose on blood glucose and C-peptide in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Complementary Theraphy in Clinical Practice, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. F. Alam, A. Islam, S. H. Gan, and I. Khalil, “Honey: a potential therapeutic agent for managing diabetic woulds,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2014, Article ID 169130, 16 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. N. Singh, D. G. Armstrong, and B. A. Lipsky, “Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes,” JAMA, vol. 293, no. 2, pp. 217–228, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. L. A. Lavery, K. R. Higgins, and D. R. Lanctot, “Preventing diabetic foot ulcer recurrence in high-risk patients: use of temperature monitoring as a self-assessment tool,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 14–20, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. A. Cooper, P. C. Molan, and K. G. Harding, “Antibacterial activity of honey against strains of Staphylococcus aureus from infected wounds,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 283–285, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. L. Estevinho, A. P. Pereira, L. Moreira, L. G. Dias, and E. Pereira, “Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of phenolic compounds extracts of Northeast Portugal honey,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 3774–3779, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. K. A. Mathews and A. G. Binnington, “Wound management using honey,” Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Verterinarian, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  95. V. Bansal, B. Medhi, and P. Pandhi, “Honey – a remedy rediscovered and its therapeutic utility,” Kathmandu University Medical Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 305–309, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  96. T. T. Phan, L. Wang, P. See, R. J. Grayer, S. Y. Chan, and S. T. Lee, “Phenolic compounds of Chromolaena adorata protect cultured skin cells from oxidative damage: implications for cutaneous wound healing,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1373–1379, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. N. S. Al-Waili and N. Saleeb, “Honey increased nitric oxide and product in saliva of healthy volunteers,” in FASEB Conference, pp. 11–15, San Diego, 2003.
  98. P. C. Molan, “The role of honey in the management of wounds,” Journal of Wound Care, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 415–418, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. P. C. Molan, “Re-introducing honey in the management of wounds and ulcers-theory and practice,” Ostomy/Wound Management, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 28–40, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  100. A. V. Kamaratos, K. N. Tzirogiannis, S. A. Iraklianou, G. I. Panoutsopoulos, I. E. Kanellos, and A. I. Melidonis, “Manuka honey-impregnated dressings in the treatment of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers,” International Wound Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 259–263, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. Shukrimi, A. R. Sulaiman, A. Y. Halim, and A. Azril, “A comparative study between honey and povidone iodine as dressing solution for Wagner type II diabetic foot ulcers,” Medical Journal of Malaysia, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 44–46, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  102. H. A. Alzahrami, B. A. Bakhotmah, and L. Boukraa, “In vitro susceptibility of diabetic wound bacteria to mixture of honey, Commiphora molmol and Nigella sativa,” The Open Nutraceuticals Journal, vol. 4, pp. 172–175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. M. Al Saeed, “Therapeutic efficacy of conventional treatment combined with Manuka honey in the treatment of patients with diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized controlled study,” The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine, vol. 53, pp. 1064–1071, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. M. Lotfy, G. Badra, V. Burham, and F. Q. Alenzi, “Combined used of honey, bee propolis and myrth in healing a deep, infected wound in a patient with diabetes mellitus,” British Journal of Medical Science, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 171–173, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  105. S. A. Meo, S. A. Al-Asiri, A. L. Mahesar, and M. J. Ansari, “Role of honey in modern medicine,” Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 975–978, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. M. Alvarez-Suarez, F. Giampieri, M. Cordero et al., “Activation of AMPK/Nrf2 signalling by Manuka honey protects human dermal fibroblasts against oxidative damage by improving antioxidant response and mitochondrial function promoting wound healing,” Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 25, pp. 38–49, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. S. A. Meo, M. J. Ansari, K. Sattar, C. H. Ullah, W. Hajjar, and S. Alasiri, “Honey and diabetes mellitus: obstacles and challenges – road to be repaired,” Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 24, pp. 1038–1042, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus