Table 1: Antioxidant activity of natural, synthetic, and recombinant avenanthramides.

YearCompoundEffectsRef.

1937Oat flourFood preservation from oxidative deterioration[42, 43]
1987TranilastReduction of intracellular levels of ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (OH)[51]
2003AvnsAntioxidant activity demonstrated by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential), and linoleic acid assays[20, 24, 28]
2003Avn-CUpregulation of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and attenuation of exercise-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation in the heart and skeletal muscles of rats[19]
2004Supplementation of Avn-enriched extract of oatsInteraction with vitamin C to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation[22]
2007Consumption of Avn-enriched extract of oatsAntioxidant activity in humans: increase of the plasma-reduced glutathione level after consumption[21]
2010Avn-rich extract from oatEffective against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress[48]
2010YAvnsReduction of intracellular ROS levels in a cellular model of CCM disease[39]
2015YAvnsUpregulation of FOXO1 and SOD2 expressions in a cellular model of CCM disease[40]
2015AvnsUpregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in both a dose- and time-dependent manner mediated by Nrf2 translocation[50]
2017YAvnsAntioxidant effects in a mouse model of CCM disease[41]
2018Natural and synthetic AvnsAntioxidant effects on CaCo-2 and Hep3B cancer cells[83]

Avns: avenanthramides; FOXO1: forkhead box protein O1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SOD2: superoxide dismutase 2; YAvns: yeast avenanthramides.