Table 2: Anti-inflammatory activity of natural, synthetic, and recombinant avenanthramides.

YearCompoundEffectsRef.

1997TranilastInhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression[56]
2002TranilastInhibition of cytokine-induced NF-κB activation[16]
2004Avn-enriched extract of oatsInhibition of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion and ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin expression[29]
2008CH3-Avn-CReduction of mRNA expression and secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 and inhibition of IL-1β- and TNFα-stimulated NF-κB activation in endothelial cells[26]
2008AvnsInhibition of TNF-induced NF-κB activity and reduction of IL-8 release keratinocites. Putative anti-itching activity[29]
2008AvnsInhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induced NF-κB luciferase activity and subsequent reduction of interleukin-8 (IL-8)[16]
2014Avn-based diet supplementationAttenuation of exercise-induced inflammation[53]
2015Avn-enriched oat branModulation of specific biomarkers of inflammation in older, overweight, or obese adults[82]
2017YAvnsInhibition of NF-κB and rescue of inflammatory phenotypes in cellular and mouse models of CCM disease[41]
2017DH Avn-DInteraction with the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), inhibition of mast cell degranulation, and reduction of the secretion of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6)[52]
2018Natural and synthetic AvnsAnti-inflammatory effects on CaCo-2 and Hep3B cancer cells[83]

Avns: avenanthramides; CCM: cerebral cavernous malformation; CH3-Avn-C: methyl ester of Avn-C; COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2; DH Avn-D: dihydro-avenanthramide D; ICAM-1: intercellular adhesion molecule 1; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; MCP-1: monocytic chemotactic protein-1; NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; TNFα: tumor necrosis factor alpha; VCAM-1: vascular cell adhesion molecule 1; YAvns: yeast avenanthramides.