6-O-Galloylpaeoniflorin Attenuates Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion-Induced Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress via PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Activation
The antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of GPF in the OGD model. To determine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of GPF, PC12 cells were pretreated with different doses of GPF (0, 10, 50, or 100 μM, resp.) for 1 h before subjected to OGD. PC12 cells without GPF and OGD treatment were set as a control. Typical representative DCFH-DA staining (ROS level detection) is shown in (a), revealing that the ROS level (green fluorescence intensity) was remarkably higher in PC12 cells subjected to OGD (2nd panel) than that in the control group (1st panel). After treatment with 10, 50, or 100 μM GPF (3rd, 4th, and 5th panels, resp.), the fluorescence intensity was lower in PC12 cells than that in cells without GFP treatment (2nd panel), in a dose-dependent manner. The MMP (b) and SOD activity (right panel of (c)) decreased in PC12 cells subjected to OGD (2nd bar) compared to that in the control cells, whereas 10, 50, and 100 μM GPF (3rd, 4th, and 5th panels, resp.) treatment significantly upregulated the OGD-decreased MMP and SOD activity in a dose-dependent manner in PC12 cells. GPF downregulated the OGD-induced upregulation of the MDA level in a dose-dependent manner (left panel of (c)). GPF significantly decreased the OGD-induced upregulation of IL-1β (left panels of (d) and (e)) and TNF-α (right panels of (d) and (e)) by ELISA (d) and qPCR (e) in PC12 cells. The data of each group were from three independent assays. versus 0 mg/kg GFP with OGD; versus 0 mg/kg GFP with OGD.
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