Indoxyl Sulfate Induces Renal Fibroblast Activation through a Targetable Heat Shock Protein 90-Dependent Pathway
17-AAG blocks HSP90-dependent activation of the Smad pathway induced by IS in NRK-49F cells. (a) HSP90 intracellular localization after a 120-minute IS treatment with or without 17-AAG. Arrows indicate nuclear sites, where no immunopositivity occurred in the presence of 17-AAG. (b) Western blot of Smad 2/3 phosphorylation in cells treated for 120 minutes with IS, 17-AAG, and 17-AAG+IS, respectively. Results are normalized for total Smad 2/3. Values are expressed as fold versus cells treated with IS ( and ). IS: indoxyl sulfate-treated cells; 17-AAG+IS: cells pretreated with the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG and then treated with IS.
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