Research Article

Interactions between Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Activation and Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production in the Development of Ventilator-Induced Diaphragm Dysfunction

Figure 2

Protein degradation and atrophy of the diaphragm following MV. (a) calpain activity assay. (b) Western blots for Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions; (c) immunofluorescence staining for diaphragm muscle fibers; (d) cross-sectional area of slow twitch fibers; (e) cross-sectional area of fast twitch fibers. MV = mechanical ventilation; cPLA2 = cytosolic phospholipase A2; CDIBA = 4-{2-[5-chloro-1-(diphenylmethyl)-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]-ethoxy} benzoic acid, a specific cPLA2 inhibitor; MitoTEMPO = a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant; and vs. the control group; vs. the MV group.