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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2019, Article ID 3085756, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3085756
Review Article

Oxidative Stress and Advanced Lipoxidation and Glycation End Products (ALEs and AGEs) in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

1I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), 8 Trubetskaya Street, Moscow, 119991, Russia
2N.I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1 Ostrovityanov Street, Moscow, 117997, Russia
3Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 49 Kronverksky Prospect, St. Petersburg, 197101, Russia

Correspondence should be addressed to Nurbubu T. Moldogazieva; ur.liam@aveizagodlomn

Received 18 January 2019; Accepted 27 June 2019; Published 14 August 2019

Academic Editor: Demetrios Kouretas

Copyright © 2019 Nurbubu T. Moldogazieva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress is a consequence of the use of oxygen in aerobic respiration by living organisms and is denoted as a persistent condition of an imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability of the endogenous antioxidant system (AOS) to detoxify them. The oxidative stress theory has been confirmed in many animal studies, which demonstrated that the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and biomolecular stability and integrity is crucial for cellular longevity and successful aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired protein homeostasis (proteostasis) network, alteration in the activities of transcription factors such as Nrf2 and NF-κB, and disturbances in the protein quality control machinery that includes molecular chaperones, ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and autophagy/lysosome pathway have been observed during aging and age-related chronic diseases. The accumulation of ROS under oxidative stress conditions results in the induction of lipid peroxidation and glycoxidation reactions, which leads to the elevated endogenous production of reactive aldehydes and their derivatives such as glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MG), malonic dialdehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) giving rise to advanced lipoxidation and glycation end products (ALEs and AGEs, respectively). Both ALEs and AGEs play key roles in cellular response to oxidative stress stimuli through the regulation of a variety of cell signaling pathways. However, elevated ALE and AGE production leads to protein cross-linking and aggregation resulting in an alteration in cell signaling and functioning which causes cell damage and death. This is implicated in aging and various age-related chronic pathologies such as inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerosis, and vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. In the present review, we discuss experimental data evidencing the impairment in cellular functions caused by AGE/ALE accumulation under oxidative stress conditions. We focused on the implications of ALEs/AGEs in aging and age-related diseases to demonstrate that the identification of cellular dysfunctions involved in disease initiation and progression can serve as a basis for the discovery of relevant therapeutic agents.