Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2019 / Article / Fig 4

Review Article

Probiotics as Beneficial Dietary Supplements to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular Diseases: Uncovering Their Impact on Oxidative Stress

Figure 4

Gut microbiota and some relevant molecular pathways linking gut dysbiosis to cardiovascular and cardiometabolic diseases through the bloodstream and via the autonomic nervous system. The main mechanisms of the modulators include the neuroendocrine hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (ACTH: adrenocorticotrophic hormone), afferent and efferent pathways of the autonomic nervous system (vagal and sympathetic components), reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory markers (interleukins: IL; tumor necrosis factor α: TNFα; monocyte chemoattractant protein: MCP1; cyclooxygenase: Cox 2; toll-like receptors: TLR), and dietary metabolic byproducts (short-chain fatty acids: SCFAs; lipopolysaccharides: LPS).

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