CD28 Deficiency Ameliorates Blast Exposure-Induced Lung Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and T Cell Accumulation in the Lungs via the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 Signaling Pathway
CD28 deficiency inhibits blast exposure-induced lung proinflammatory cytokine expression. (a–h) Representative western blot images and quantitative analysis of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, NF-κB, CD44, CD163, and β-actin. Fold changes of WT (green bar) and CD28-/- (red bar) expressions are shown. (i–l) Representative immunohistochemical images and semiquantitative analysis of CD44 and CD163 protein in each group (immunohistochemical staining, ). All experiments were repeated at least three times. Results are expressed as the ( per group). versus the control group; versus the WT group (two-way ANOVA; Bonferroni post hoc test). WT: C57BL/6 wild-type mice; CD28-/-: CD28 knockout mice.
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