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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2019, Article ID 5189490, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5189490
Research Article

Pharmacotherapeutics and Molecular Mechanism of Phytochemicals in Alleviating Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer

1Division of Life Science, Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Research Institute of Natural Science (RINS), Gyeongsang National University (GNU), 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea
2Department of Genetics, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, 500 007 Telangana, India
3College of Pharmacy, Inje University, 197 Inje-ro, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 50834, Republic of Korea
4Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Seok Ju Park; ten.liamnah@sisenegjsp and Keun Woo Lee; rk.ca.ung@eelwk

Received 10 September 2018; Revised 30 November 2018; Accepted 24 December 2018; Published 4 April 2019

Academic Editor: H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe

Copyright © 2019 Shailima Rampogu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of death among women worldwide devoid of effective treatment. It is therefore important to develop agents that can reverse, reduce, or slow the growth of BC. The use of natural products as chemopreventive agents provides enormous advantages. The aim of the current investigation is to determine the efficacy of the phytochemicals against BC along with the approved drugs to screen the most desirable and effective phytocompound. In the current study, 36 phytochemicals have been evaluated against aromatase to identify the potential candidate drug along with the approved drugs employing the Cdocker module accessible on the Discovery Studio (DS) v4.5 and thereafter analysing the stability of the protein ligand complex using GROningen MAchine for Chemical Simulations v5.0.6 (GROMACS). Additionally, these compounds were assessed for the inhibitory features employing the structure-based pharmacophore (SBP). The Cdocker protocol available with the DS has computed higher dock scores for the phytochemicals complemented by lower binding energies. The top-ranked compounds that have anchored with key residues located at the binding pocket of the protein were subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing GROMACS. The resultant findings reveal the stability of the protein backbone and further guide to comprehend on the involvement of key residues Phe134, Val370, and Met374 that mechanistically inhibit BC. Among 36 compounds, curcumin, capsaicin, rosmarinic acid, and 6-shogaol have emerged as promising phytochemicals conferred with the highest Cdocker interaction energy, key residue interactions, stable MD results than reference drugs, and imbibing the key inhibitory features. Taken together, the current study illuminates the use of natural compounds as potential drugs against BC. Additionally, these compounds could also serve as scaffolds in designing and development of new drugs.