Table 1: Characterization of PMG including phenolic compositions and biological activities.

ParametersUnitsEMGPMGStandard reference

Total phenolicmg GAE/mg extract
Total flavonoidsμg quercetin/mg extract
Gingerolμg gingerol/50 mg extract
Cyanidin-3-O-glucosideμg Cyn-3-glu/50 mg extract
Quercetin-3-rutinosideμg Rutin/50 mg extract
Ferulic acidμg ferulic acid/50 mg extract
Gallic acidμg GAE/50 mg extract
Antioxidant activities
 DPPHEC 50 (mg/ml), ascorbic acid
 FRAPEC 50 (mg/ml), ascorbic acid
 ABTSEC 50 (mg/ml), trolox
Obesity marker
 Pancreatic lipaseEC 50 (mg/ml), orlistat
Inflammatory marker
 COX-IIEC 50 (mg/ml), indomethacin

Data are presented as . value < 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively, compared between EMG and PMG. EMG: the combined extracts of mulberry and ginger, PMG: phytosome containing the combined extracts of mulberry and ginger.