Alterations in Organismal Physiology, Impaired Stress Resistance, and Accelerated Aging in Drosophila Flies Adapted to Multigenerational Proteome Instability
Multigenerational proteome instability in G80-BTZ flies induced metabolic reprogramming being evidenced by suppressed insulin/IGF-like signaling (IIS). (a) Relative (%) content of glucose (GLU), glycogen (GLY), and trehalose (TREH) levels in somatic tissues of female/male flies (10 or 20 days old) of the NT and G80-BTZ groups. (b1) CSLM visualization of fat bodies’ (microdissected from 20-22-day-old female flies of the NT and G80-BTZ groups) lipid content after BODIPY staining; samples were also stained with a GLY antibody and counterstained with DAPI. (b2) Relative (%) size of lipid droplets shown in (b1). (c) Relative expression of Ilp2, Ilp6, InR, Pdk1, Akt1, foxo, G6P, Pepck, GlyP, GlyS, Ide, PyK, PEK, Akh, ATGL, and tgl genes in somatic tissues of flies of the NT and G80-BTZ populations. Gene expression was plotted vs. the respective control; the Rp49 gene expression was used as input reference. (d) Immunoblotting analysis of protein expression in female somatic tissues (d1), haemolymph (d2), or dissected heads (d3) of NT and G80-BTZ flies; blots were probed with antibodies against p-GSK3S21/S9, sgg/GSK3, and foxo (d1); Ilp2 (d2); and Ilp2 and ImpL2 (d3). GAPDH or Ponceau S staining was used as loading reference. (e) Schematic representation of the IIS regulatory pathway in the context of Nrf2 and Foxo regulation. Bars, ±SD ().;.
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