Curcumin Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell-Induced Hepatocarcinoma Angiogenesis and Invasion through Downregulating CTGF
CTGF interference abrogates the observed effects of HIF-1α silencing and curcumin on HSC activation and HCC invasion. (a) HepG2 cells were silenced by control shRNA (sh-control) or shRNA targeting HIF-1α (sh-HIF-1α); CTGF protein levels of HepG2 cells were analyzed by western blot. CTGF interference efficiency in HSCs and HepG2 cells were analyzed by western blot (b) and qRT-PCR (c). (d, e) HSCs transfected with shRNA were cultured with or without curcumin for 12 h and serum starved for an additional 24 h. (d) HIF-1α and VEGF protein level of HSCs were analyzed by western blot. (e) HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA level of HSCs were analyzed by qRT-PCR. HepG2 cells transfected with CTGF shRNA were incubated with the conditioned media (CM) from HSCs with or without curcumin for 24 h. The cells were lysed, and E-cadherin and vimentin expression levels were analyzed by western blot (f) and qRT-PCR (g). . All data are representative of at least three independent experiments.
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