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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2019, Article ID 8458472, 16 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8458472
Review Article

Perturbed Biochemical Pathways and Associated Oxidative Stress Lead to Vascular Dysfunctions in Diabetic Retinopathy

Panjab University, Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Science Block II, Chandigarh 160014, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Rajat Sandhir; ni.ca.up@rihdnas

Received 7 October 2018; Revised 26 December 2018; Accepted 27 January 2019; Published 6 March 2019

Guest Editor: Jayeeta Ghose

Copyright © 2019 Nidhi Mahajan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a vascular insult that accompanies the hyperglycemic state. Retinal vasculature holds a pivotal role in maintaining the integrity of the retina, and any alteration to retinal vasculature affects retinal functions. The blood retinal barrier, a prerequisite to vision acuity, is most susceptible to damage during the progression of DR. This is a consequence of impaired biochemical pathways such as the polyol, advanced end glycation products (AGE), hexosamine, protein kinase C (PKC), and tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) pathways. Moreover, the role of histone modification and altered miRNA expression is also emerging as a major contributor. Epigenetic changes create a link between altered protein function and redox status of retinal cells, creating a state of metabolic memory. Although various biochemical pathways underlie the etiology of DR, the major insult to the retina is due to oxidative stress, a unifying factor of altered biochemical pathways. This review primarily focuses on the critical biochemical pathways altered in DR leading to vascular dysfunctions and discusses antioxidants as plausible treatment strategies.