Table 1: Possible biomarkers of oxidative stress (oxidants and antioxidants) in hemodialysis.

Lipid oxidationFree radicalsProtein oxidationDNA oxidationAntioxidants

TBARS
MDA
Ox-LDL
F2-isoprostanes
Lipoperoxides
PCOOH
Nitric oxide
ROS
Oxidized albumin
MPO
ADMA
AOPPs
AGEs
Homocysteine
Thiols
Carbonyls
8-OHdG
8-OxodG
Endogenous
TAC
SOD
CAT
GSH
GSH-Px
GST
GSSG
GSH/GSSG
Ox-LDL antibodies
Uric acid
Albumin
Transferrin, ferritin
Exogenous
Zn, Cu, Se
NAC
Vitamin B complex
Vitamin E (a-tocopherol)
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Polyphenols
A-Lipoic acid
Flavonoids
L-Carnitine
Q-enzyme Q10
Green tea
Curcumin
Statins
Omega-3 fatty acids
Measured in
(i) Plasma
(ii) Whole blood
(iii) White blood cells
(iv) Red blood cells
(v) Platelets

TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; MDA: malondialdehyde; ox-LDL: oxidized low-density lipoproteins; PCOOH phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide; ROS: reactive oxygen species; MPO: myeloperoxidase; ADMA: asymmetric dimethylarginine; AOPPs: advanced oxidation protein products; AGEs: advanced glycation end-products; 8-OHdG: 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine; 8-oxodG: 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine; TAC: total antioxidant capacity; SOD: superoxide dismutase; CAT: catalase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase; GST: glutathione transferase; GSSG: reduced oxidized glutathione; GSH/GSSG: ratio of glutathione/oxidized glutathione; Zn: zinc; Cu: copper; Se: selenium; NAC: N-acetyl-cysteine.