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Figure 5: VNS attenuates oxidative stress in SMI/R injury. (a-c) The effect of VNS on the MDA, SOD, and MPO levels in skeletal muscle tissues. (d-e) The effect of VNS on the MDA and SOD levels in serum. vs. control group; vs. I/R group. MDA: myeloperoxidase; SOD: superoxide dismutase; MPO: malondialdehyde.