Research Article

A Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor Modulator Attenuated Secondary Brain Injury and Improved Neurological Functions of Mice after ICH

Figure 1

Effect of Siponimod on the development of brain edema and neurological dysfunctions after ICH. Compared to sham-operated animals, collagenase-induced ICH resulted in increase in brain water content both at 24 (a) and 72 (b) hours after insult. Development of brain edema was associated with neurological dysfunctions as evaluated through the forelimb placing test at 24 and 72 hours after ICH (c, d). Although at 24 hours after ICH Siponimod treatment showed only tendency to decrease post-ICH brain water content, treatment with low concentration of the drug significantly attenuated development of neurological dysfunctions after ICH as evaluated using the forelimb placing test (a and c, respectively). At 72 hours, treatment with low concentration of Siponimod resulted in significant decrease in post-ICH brain water content, whereby the multiple treatment improved neurological functions of ICH animals significantly (b and d, respectively). ( vs. sham, # vs. vehicle). Values are expressed as .