Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Galactose-Induced Skin Aging: The Role of Oxidative Stress

Table 1

Skin changes induced by D-galactose.

StrainGenderD-gal dosesPeriod of exposureAgeAging effectsRef.

Mice
1C57BL/6JFemale50 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection8 weeks5 monthsSkin HYP ↑[66]
2C57BL/6JFemale1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection8 weeks6 weeksDermal thickness ↓
Type I collagen fibers ↓
Type III collagen ↓
[67]
3C57BL/6JMale1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection8 weeks8 weeksDermal thickness, density ↓
p16 ↑
MDA ↑
SOD ↓
CAT ↓
GSH-Px ↓
[83]
4Kunming miceNot reported1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection6 weeks22 monthsCollagen ↓
Dermal thickness ↓
Collagen fibers are shorter, less compact, and more disordered
Type I collagen fibers ↓
Type III collagen fibers ↑
[68]
5Kunming miceMale400 mg/kg intraperitoneally30 days8 weeksDestruction of hair follicles in skin
Skin HYP ↓
[69]
6Kunming miceMale and female1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection42 days6 weeksSOD ↓
MDA ↑
Skin HYP ↓
Elastin ↓
Skin moisture ↓
Dermal thickness ↓
Collagen ↓
HYP ↓
[70]
7Kunming miceMale150 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally6 weeksUnknownDermal thickness ↓
HYP ↓
[71]
8Kunming miceFemale1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection42 days3 monthsMDA ↑ and GSH-Px ↑
HYP ↓
[72]
9Kunming miceFemale1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection30 days8 weeksCAT ↓
SOD ↓
GPH-Px ↓
HYP ↓
MDA ↑
[73]
10Kunming miceMale200 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection8 weeks6 weeksH2O2
MDA ↑
CAT ↓
GSH ↓
GSH-Px ↓
Dermal thickness ↓
Skin integrity and hair follicles were also impaired
Collagen ↓
Skin collagen fiber content is reticular, more loose, and irregular
[84]
11Kunming miceMale500 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally8 weeksUnknownSkin moisture ↓
HYP ↓
Dermal thickness ↓
Collagen ↓
SOD ↓
MDA ↑
CAT ↑ and GSH-Px ↑
p16 ↑ and p21 ↑
Sirtuin1 ↓ and cyclin D1 ↓
[74]
12Kunming miceMale200 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally30 daysUnknownHYP ↓[75]
13Nude miceNot reported1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection8 weeks6 weeksSkin elasticity ↓
Dermal thickness ↓
SOD ↓
MDA ↑
AGEs ↑
CD31 expression ↓.
[76]
14Nude miceMale1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection3 weeks6 weeksCollagen ↓
Dermal thickness ↓
[77]
15Nude miceNot reported1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection8 weeks6 weeksAGE ↑
SOD ↓
MDA ↑
Dermal thickness ↓
Collagen ↓
[78]
16BALB/cMale500 mg/kg daily per oral administration6 weeks12 weeksFibroblast count ↓
Collagen ↓
[86]
Rats
17WistarMale125 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection6 weeksUnknownDermal thickness ↓
Skin moisture-no difference
HYP ↓
Collagen type I expression ↓
[79]
18WistarFemale150 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally12 weeks170-180 daysSkin moisture ↓
HYP ↓
[80]
19WistarMale200 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally6 weeksUnknownRats had brittle and less elastic hair
Thin, inelastic, and sagged skin is reported
[85]
20Sprague-DawleyMale1000 mg/kg daily subcutaneous injection8 weeks4-6 weeksSkin elasticity ↓[81]
21Sprague-DawleyMale and female100 mg/kg daily hypodermically injected8 weeksUnknownCAT ↓ and GSH-Px ↓
MDA ↑
Dermal thickness ↓.
[82]

HYP: skin hydroxyproline; SOD: skin superoxide dismutase; MDA: malondialdehyde; GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase; CAT: catalase; GSH: glutathione S-transferase.

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