Ginseng-Sanqi-Chuanxiong (GSC) Extracts Ameliorate Diabetes-Induced Endothelial Cell Senescence through Regulating Mitophagy via the AMPK Pathway
AMPK inhibition by shRNA reversed the effect of GSC extracts against HG/PA-induced cellular senescence in HAECs. HAECs were transfected with AMPK shRNA or SCR shRNA for 8 h and then treated with HG/PA, GSC extracts, or metformin for 48 h. (a) Western blot analysis of AMPK, p-AMPK, mTOR, p-mTOR, p70S6K, and p-p70S6K expression in transfected HAECs. (b) Western blot analysis of PINK1, Parkin, LC3B-II, and p62 expression in transfected HAECs. (c) Cell viability as determined by CCK-8 assay. (d) SA-β-gal were detected in HAECs. (e) Immunofluorescence images to show mtROS production in HAECs. (f) Western blot analysis of p16 and p21 expression in HAECs. ▲ and ▲▲, compared with the SCR shRNA group. # and ##, compared with the control group; and , compared with the model (HG/PA) group.