Proanthocyanidins-Mediated Nrf2 Activation Ameliorates Glucocorticoid-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Osteoblasts
The Nrf2 pathway mediated the osteoprotective effects of PAC. Wild type (Nrf2 con) and Nrf2-knockdown osteoblasts were treated 1 μM PAC with/out 5 μM Dex pretreatment for 2 days. (a–d) Immunoblot showing RUNX2, COL1A1, and OCN in the differentially treated osteoblasts. Representative images showing ALP (e) staining on the 7th day and (f) ARS staining on the 21st day of osteogenic induction in differentially treated osteoblasts. Data are the of 3 independent experiments. versus the untreated group, ## versus the Dex group, && versus the Dex+PAC group.