Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2021 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Pathology, Risk Factors, and Oxidative Damage Related to Type 2 Diabetes-Mediated Alzheimer’s Disease and the Rescuing Effects of the Potent Antioxidant Anthocyanin

Figure 1

Obesity, free fatty acids, and insulin resistance. A diagrammatic representation showing the role of obesity in metabolic dysregulation via the release of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity. Secretion of FFA and proinflammatory cytokines results in ROS/oxidative stress-mediated JNK activation. Inflammatory cytokines cause low-grade inflammation in peripheral organs and induce type 2 diabetes. Similarly, chronic FFA treatment induces insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction and causes type 2 diabetes. ROS: reactive oxygen species; RNS: reactive nitrosative stress; FFA: free fatty acid; ER: endoplasmic reticulum.

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