Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2021 / Article / Fig 3

Review Article

Pathology, Risk Factors, and Oxidative Damage Related to Type 2 Diabetes-Mediated Alzheimer’s Disease and the Rescuing Effects of the Potent Antioxidant Anthocyanin

Figure 3

Dysbiosis, leaky gut, inflammatory cytokines, and insulin resistance. A simple illustration showing the release of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and disruption of tight junctions in the intestinal wall resulting in the release of inflammatory cytokines, which enter the blood and pancreatic beta-cells. In addition, the TLR4 receptors in LPS play a role in the release of microglial cells. The reactive microglial cells secrete inflammatory cytokines and cause insulin resistance. NF-κB: nuclear factor-kappa B; TNF-α: tissue necrosis factor-alpha; TLR4: Toll-like receptor 4.

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