Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Evidence of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autism: Biochemical Links, Genetic-Based Associations, and Non-Energy-Related Mechanisms Mon, 29 May 2017 09:13:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/4314025/ Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States, represents a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted and repetitive behavior. The underlying cause of autism is unknown and therapy is currently limited to targeting behavioral abnormalities. Emerging studies suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and ASD. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating this potential connection. We focus specifically on biochemical links, genetic-based associations, non-energy related mechanisms, and novel therapeutic strategies. Keren K. Griffiths and Richard J. Levy Copyright © 2017 Keren K. Griffiths and Richard J. Levy. All rights reserved. Homocysteine Induces Apoptosis of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/5736506/ Homocysteine- (Hcy-) induced endothelial cell apoptosis has been suggested as a cause of Hcy-dependent vascular injury, while the proposed molecular pathways underlying this process are unclear. In this study, we investigated the adverse effects of Hcy on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that moderate-dose Hcy treatment induced HUVEC apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, prolonged Hcy treatment increased the expression of NOX4 and the production of intracellular ROS but decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), resulting in the leakage of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. Prolonged Hcy treatment also upregulated glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), and induced the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and the phosphorylation of NF-κb. The inhibition of NOX4 decreased the production of ROS and alleviated the Hcy-induced HUVEC apoptosis and ER stress. Blocking the PERK pathway partly alleviated Hcy-induced HUVEC apoptosis and the activation of NF-κb. Taken together, our results suggest that Hcy-induced mitochondrial dysfunction crucially modulated apoptosis and contributed to the activation of ER stress in HUVEC. The excessive activation of the PERK pathway partly contributed to Hcy-induced HUVEC apoptosis and the phosphorylation of NF-κb. Zhimin Zhang, Congying Wei, Yanfen Zhou, Tao Yan, Zhengqiang Wang, Wei Li, and Lianyou Zhao Copyright © 2017 Zhimin Zhang et al. All rights reserved. NPC-EXs Alleviate Endothelial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction through the miR-210 Downstream Nox2 and VEGFR2 Pathways Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/9397631/ We have demonstrated that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) protect endothelial cells (ECs) from oxidative stress. Since exosomes (EXs) can convey the benefit of parent cells through their carried microRNAs (miRs) and miR-210 is ubiquitously expressed with versatile functions, we investigated the role of miR-210 in the effects of NPC-EXs on oxidative stress and dysfunction in ECs. NPCs were transfected with control and miR-210 scramble/inhibitor/mimic to generate NPC-EXscon, NPC-EXssc, NPC-EXsanti-miR-210, and NPC-EXsmiR-210. The effects of various NPC-EXs on angiotensin II- (Ang II-) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, apoptosis, and dysfunction, as well as dysregulation of Nox2, ephrin A3, VEGF, and p-VEGFR2/VEGFR2 in ECs were evaluated. Results showed (1) Ang II-induced ROS overproduction, increase in apoptosis, and decrease in tube formation ability, accompanied with Nox2 upregulation and reduction of p-VEGFR2/VEGFR2 in ECs. (2) Compared to NPC-EXscon or NPC-EXssc, NPC-EXsanti-miR-210 were less whereas NPC-EXsmiR-210 were more effective on attenuating these detrimental effects induced by Ang II in ECs. (3) These effects of NPC-EXsanti-miR-210 and NPC-EXsmiR-210 were associated with the changes of miR-210, ephrin A3, VEGF, and p-VEGFR2/VEGFR2 ratio in ECs. Altogether, the protective effects of NPC-EXs on Ang II-induced endothelial injury through miR-210 which controls Nox2/ROS and VEGF/VEGFR2 signals were studied. Hua Liu, Jinju Wang, Yusen Chen, Yanfang Chen, Xiaotang Ma, Ji C. Bihl, and Yi Yang Copyright © 2017 Hua Liu et al. All rights reserved. Mitophagy Transcriptome: Mechanistic Insights into Polyphenol-Mediated Mitophagy Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/9028435/ Mitochondria are important bioenergetic and signalling hubs critical for myriad cellular functions and homeostasis. Dysfunction in mitochondria is a central theme in aging and diseases. Mitophagy, a process whereby damaged mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy, plays a key homeostatic role in mitochondrial quality control. Upregulation of mitophagy has shown to mitigate superfluous mitochondrial accumulation and toxicity to safeguard mitochondrial fitness. Hence, mitophagy is a viable target to promote longevity and prevent age-related pathologies. Current challenge in modulating mitophagy for cellular protection involves identification of physiological ways to activate the pathway. Till date, mitochondrial stress and toxins remain the most potent inducers of mitophagy. Polyphenols have recently been demonstrated to protect mitochondrial health by facilitating mitophagy, thus suggesting the exciting prospect of augmenting mitophagy through dietary intake. In this review, we will first discuss the different surveillance mechanisms responsible for the removal of damaged mitochondrial components, followed by highlighting the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of mitophagy. Finally, we will review the functional connection between polyphenols and mitophagy and provide insight into the underlying mechanisms that potentially govern polyphenol-induced mitophagy. Sijie Tan and Esther Wong Copyright © 2017 Sijie Tan and Esther Wong. All rights reserved. The Effects of Blast Exposure on Protein Deimination in the Brain Wed, 24 May 2017 03:47:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/8398072/ Oxidative stress and calcium excitotoxicity are hallmarks of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While these early disruptions may be corrected over a relatively short period of time, long-lasting consequences of TBI including impaired cognition and mood imbalances can persist for years, even in the absence of any evidence of overt injury based on neuroimaging. This investigation examined the possibility that disordered protein deimination occurs as a result of TBI and may thus contribute to the long-term pathologies of TBI. Protein deimination is a calcium-activated, posttranslational modification implicated in the autoimmune diseases rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, where aberrant deimination creates antigenic epitopes that elicit an autoimmune attack. The present study utilized proteomic analyses to show that blast TBI alters the deimination status of proteins in the porcine cerebral cortex. The affected proteins represent a small subset of the entire brain proteome and include glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, proteins reported to be involved in autoimmune-based pathologies. The data also indicate that blast injury is associated with an increase in immunoglobulins in the brain, possibly representing autoantibodies directed against novel protein epitopes. These findings indicate that aberrant protein deimination is a biomarker for blast TBI and may therefore underlie chronic neuropathologies of head injury. Peter J. Attilio, Michael Flora, Alaa Kamnaksh, Donald J. Bradshaw, Denes Agoston, and Gregory P. Mueller Copyright © 2017 Peter J. Attilio et al. All rights reserved. Tubulin Beta-3 Chain as a New Candidate Protein Biomarker of Human Skin Aging: A Preliminary Study Tue, 23 May 2017 06:03:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/5140360/ Skin aging is a complex process, and a lot of efforts have been made to identify new and specific targets that could help to diagnose, prevent, and treat skin aging. Several studies concerning skin aging have analyzed the changes in gene expression, and very few investigations have been performed at the protein level. Moreover, none of these proteomic studies has used a global quantitative labeled proteomic offgel approach that allows a more accurate description of aging phenotype. We applied such an approach on human primary keratinocytes obtained from sun-nonexposed skin biopsies of young and elderly women. A total of 517 unique proteins were identified, and 58 proteins were significantly differentially expressed with 40 that were downregulated and 18 upregulated with aging. Gene ontology and pathway analysis performed on these 58 putative biomarkers of skin aging evidenced that these dysregulated proteins were mostly involved in metabolism and cellular processes such as cell cycle and signaling pathways. Change of expression of tubulin beta-3 chain was confirmed by western blot on samples originated from several donors. Thus, this study suggested the tubulin beta-3 chain has a promising biomarker in skin aging. Sylvia G. Lehmann, Sandrine Bourgoin-Voillard, Michel Seve, and Walid Rachidi Copyright © 2017 Sylvia G. Lehmann et al. All rights reserved. Hepatoprotective Effect of Polyphenol-Enriched Fraction from Folium Microcos on Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Mice Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/3631565/ Folium Microcos (FM), the leaves of Microcos paniculata L., shows various biological functions including antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. However, its therapeutic potential in acute liver injury is still unknown. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of the polyphenol-enriched fraction (FMF) from Folium Microcos. FMF exhibited strong free radical scavenging activities and prevented HepG2/Hepa1–6 cells from hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced ROS production and apoptosis in vitro. Antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effects were further verified by alleviating APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Western blot analysis revealed that FMF pretreatment significantly abrogated APAP-mediated phosphorylation of MAPKs, activation of proapoptotic protein caspase-3/9 and Bax, and restored expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl2. APAP-intoxicated mice pretreated with FMF showed increased nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and elevated hepatic expression of its target genes, NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and hemeoxygenase-1(HO-1). HPLC analysis revealed the four predominantly phenolic compounds present in FMF: narcissin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside, isovitexin, and vitexin. Consequently, these findings indicate that FMF possesses a hepatoprotective effect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity mainly through dual modification of ROS/MAPKs/apoptosis axis and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response, which may be attributed to the strong antioxidant activity of phenolic components. Hongtan Wu, Gang Zhang, Lisen Huang, Haiyue Pang, Na Zhang, Yupei Chen, and Gueyhorng Wang Copyright © 2017 Hongtan Wu et al. All rights reserved. NADPH Oxidases: Insights into Selected Functions and Mechanisms of Action in Cancer and Stem Cells Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/9420539/ NADPH oxidases (NOX) are reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) generating enzymes regulating numerous redox-dependent signaling pathways. NOX are important regulators of cell differentiation, growth, and proliferation and of mechanisms, important for a wide range of processes from embryonic development, through tissue regeneration to the development and spread of cancer. In this review, we discuss the roles of NOX and NOX-derived ROS in the functioning of stem cells and cancer stem cells and in selected aspects of cancer cell physiology. Understanding the functions and complex activities of NOX is important for the application of stem cells in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and development of new therapies toward invasive forms of cancers. Magdalena Skonieczna, Tomasz Hejmo, Aleksandra Poterala-Hejmo, Artur Cieslar-Pobuda, and Rafal J. Buldak Copyright © 2017 Magdalena Skonieczna et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Environmental Factors in Influencing Epigenetics Related to Oxidative States in the Cardiovascular System Sun, 21 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/2712751/ Oxidative states exert a significant influence on a wide range of biological and molecular processes and functions. When their balance is shifted towards enhanced amounts of free radicals, pathological phenomena can occur, as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissue microenvironment or in the systemic circulation can be detrimental. Epidemic chronic diseases of western societies, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes correlate with the imbalance of redox homeostasis. Current advances in our understanding of epigenetics have revealed a parallel scenario showing the influence of oxidative stress as a major regulator of epigenetic gene regulation via modification of DNA methylation, histones, and microRNAs. This has provided both the biological link and a potential molecular explanation between oxidative stress and cardiovascular/metabolic phenomena. Accordingly, in this review, we will provide current insights on the physiological and pathological impact of changes in oxidative states on cardiovascular disorders, by specifically focusing on the influence of epigenetic regulation. A special emphasis will highlight the effect on epigenetic regulation of human’s current life habits, external and environmental factors, including food intake, tobacco, air pollution, and antioxidant-based approaches. Additionally, the strategy to quantify oxidative states in humans in order to determine which biological marker could best match a subject’s profile will be discussed. Francesco Angelini, Francesca Pagano, Antonella Bordin, Marika Milan, Isotta Chimenti, Mariangela Peruzzi, Valentina Valenti, Antonino Marullo, Leonardo Schirone, Silvia Palmerio, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Colin E. Murdoch, Giacomo Frati, and Elena De Falco Copyright © 2017 Francesco Angelini et al. All rights reserved. Hypoxia in Obesity and Diabetes: Potential Therapeutic Effects of Hyperoxia and Nitrate Sun, 21 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/5350267/ The prevalence of obesity and diabetes is increasing worldwide. Obesity and diabetes are associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Obesity, a chronic hypoxic state that is associated with decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, is one of the main causes of type 2 diabetes. The hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is involved in the regulation of several genes of the metabolic pathways including proinflammatory adipokines, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), and insulin signaling components. It seems that adipose tissue hypoxia and NO-dependent vascular and cellular dysfunctions are responsible for other consequences linked to obesity-related disorders. Although hyperoxia could reverse hypoxic-related disorders, it increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreases the production of NO. Nitrate can restore NO depletion and has antioxidant properties, and recent data support the beneficial effects of nitrate therapy in obesity and diabetes. Although it seems reasonable to combine hyperoxia and nitrate treatments for managing obesity/diabetes, the combined effects have not been investigated yet. This review discusses some aspects of tissue oxygenation and the potential effects of hyperoxia and nitrate interventions on obesity/diabetes management. It can be proposed that concomitant use of hyperoxia and nitrate is justified for managing obesity and diabetes. Reza Norouzirad, Pedro González-Muniesa, and Asghar Ghasemi Copyright © 2017 Reza Norouzirad et al. All rights reserved. Mitochondrial Transfer from Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cell to MERRF Cybrid Reduces Oxidative Stress and Improves Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Sun, 21 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/5691215/ Myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease affecting neuromuscular functions. Mt.8344A>G mutation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the most common cause of MERRF syndrome and has been linked to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and oxidative stress, as well as impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here, we tested whether WJMSC has therapeutic potential for the treatment of MERRF syndrome through the transfer of mitochondria. The MERRF cybrid cells exhibited a high mt.8344A>G mutation ratio, enhanced ROS level and oxidative damage, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, defected mitochondria-dependent viability, exhibited an imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics, and are susceptible to apoptotic stress. Coculture experiments revealed that mitochondria were intercellularly conducted from the WJMSC to the MERRF cybrid. Furthermore, WJMSC transferred mitochondria exclusively to cells with defective mitochondria but not to cells with normal mitochondria. MERRF cybrid following WJMSC coculture (MF+WJ) demonstrated improvement of mt.8344A>G mutation ratio, ROS level, oxidative damage, mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondria-dependent viability, balance of mitochondrial dynamics, and resistance against apoptotic stress. WJMSC-derived mitochondrial transfer and its therapeutic effect were noted to be blocked by F-actin depolymerizing agent cytochalasin B. Collectively, the WJMSC ability to rescue cells with defective mitochondrial function through donating healthy mitochondria may lead to new insights into the development of more efficient strategies to treat diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Yao-Chung Chuang, Chia-Wei Liou, Shang-Der Chen, Pei-Wen Wang, Jiin-Haur Chuang, Mao-Meng Tiao, Te-Yao Hsu, Hung-Yu Lin, and Tsu-Kung Lin Copyright © 2017 Yao-Chung Chuang et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant Treatment Induces Hyperactivation of the HPA Axis by Upregulating ACTH Receptor in the Adrenal and Downregulating Glucocorticoid Receptors in the Pituitary Sun, 21 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/4156361/ Glucocorticoid (GC) production is physiologically regulated through a negative feedback loop mediated by the GC, which appears disrupted in several pathological conditions. The inability to perform negative feedback of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in several diseases is associated with an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, nothing is known about the effects of ROS on the functionality of the HPA axis during homeostasis. This study analyzed the putative impact of antioxidants on the HPA axis activity and GC-mediated negative feedback upon the HPA cascade. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vitamin E for 18 consecutive days. NAC-treated rats were then subjected to a daily treatment with dexamethasone, which covered the last 5 days of the antioxidant therapy. We found that NAC and vitamin E induced an increase in plasma corticosterone levels. NAC intensified MC2R and StAR expressions in the adrenal and reduced GR and MR expressions in the pituitary. NAC also prevented the dexamethasone-induced reduction in plasma corticosterone levels. Furthermore, NAC decreased HO-1 and Nrf2 expression in the pituitary. These findings show that antioxidants induce hyperactivity of the HPA axis via upregulation of MC2R expression in the adrenal and downregulation of GR and MR in the pituitary. Jessika P. Prevatto, Rafael C. Torres, Bruno L. Diaz, Patrícia M. R. e Silva, Marco A. Martins, and Vinicius F. Carvalho Copyright © 2017 Jessika P. Prevatto et al. All rights reserved. Pterostilbene 4′-β-Glucoside Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis via Induction of Tristetraprolin Thu, 18 May 2017 10:34:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/9427583/ Pterostilbene, a dimethyl ester analog of resveratrol, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects and alters cell proliferation. Tristetraprolin (TTP) promotes the degradation of proinflammatory mediators via binding to adenosine and uridine- (AU-) rich elements (ARE) located in the 3′-untranslated regions of mRNAs. Here, we utilized pterostilbene 4′-β-glucoside (4-PG), a compound derived from pterostilbene, to investigate whether it has anti-inflammatory effects on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis via TTP enhancement. TTP expression was increased in 4-PG dose- and time-dependent manners in RAW264.7 cells. The production of proinflammatory cytokine, such as TNF-α, was reduced by 4-PG in vitro. To investigate the role of TTP in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-PG, we used DSS-induced colitis in TTP WT and KO mice as models. The expression levels of TTP and proinflammatory cytokines were determined in serum and colon tissue. 4-PG increased the expression of TTP while suppressing proinflammatory cytokines both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that treatment with 4-PG mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of 4-PG on DSS-induced colitis via enhancing TTP expression. Yingqing Chen, Jeongmin Park, Yeonsoo Joe, Hyeok-Jun Park, Seung-Joo Jekal, Daisuke Sato, Hiroki Hamada, and Hun Taeg Chung Copyright © 2017 Yingqing Chen et al. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Mitochondrial Transfer by Antioxidants in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/8510805/ Excessive reactive oxygen species is the major component of a harsh microenvironment after ischemia/reperfusion injury in human tissues. Combined treatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) promoted the growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and suppressed oxidative stress-induced cell death by enhancing mitochondrial integrity and function in vitro. In this study, we aimed to determine whether NAC and AAP (termed MCA) could enhance the therapeutic potential of hMSCs. We established a coculture system consisting of MCA-treated and H2O2-treated hMSCs and investigated the role of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) in the exchange of mitochondria between the 2 cell populations. The consequences of mitochondria exchange were assessed by fluorescence confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The results showed that MCA could increase the mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacity, and numbers of TNTs in hMSCs. The “energized” mitochondria were transferred to the injured hMSCs via TNTs, the oxidative stress was decreased, and the mitochondrial membrane potential of the H2O2-treated hMSCs was stabilized. The transfer of mitochondria decreased the expression of S616-phosphorylated dynamin-related protein 1, a protein that dictates the fragmentation/fission of mitochondria. Concurrently, MCA also enhanced mitophagy in the coculture system, implicating that damaged mitochondria were eliminated in order to maintain cell physiology. Chia-Jung Li, Po-Kong Chen, Li-Yi Sun, and Cheng-Yoong Pang Copyright © 2017 Chia-Jung Li et al. All rights reserved. Mechanisms Underlying the Essential Role of Mitochondrial Membrane Lipids in Yeast Chronological Aging Tue, 16 May 2017 07:15:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/2916985/ The functional state of mitochondria is vital to cellular and organismal aging in eukaryotes across phyla. Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided evidence that age-related changes in some aspects of mitochondrial functionality can create certain molecular signals. These signals can then define the rate of cellular aging by altering unidirectional and bidirectional communications between mitochondria and other organelles. Several aspects of mitochondrial functionality are known to impact the replicative and/or chronological modes of yeast aging. They include mitochondrial electron transport, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, and protein synthesis and proteostasis, as well as mitochondrial synthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, amino acids, and NADPH. Our recent findings have revealed that the composition of mitochondrial membrane lipids is one of the key aspects of mitochondrial functionality affecting yeast chronological aging. We demonstrated that exogenously added lithocholic bile acid can delay chronological aging in yeast because it elicits specific changes in mitochondrial membrane lipids. These changes allow mitochondria to operate as signaling platforms that delay yeast chronological aging by orchestrating an institution and maintenance of a distinct cellular pattern. In this review, we discuss molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the essential role of mitochondrial membrane lipids in yeast chronological aging. Younes Medkour, Paméla Dakik, Mélissa McAuley, Karamat Mohammad, Darya Mitrofanova, and Vladimir I. Titorenko Copyright © 2017 Younes Medkour et al. All rights reserved. Cardiovascular Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Cocaine: Biomarkers and Possible Beneficial Effects of Modulators of Oxidative Stress Tue, 16 May 2017 05:34:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/3034245/ Cocaine abuse has long been known to cause morbidity and mortality due to its cardiovascular toxic effects. The pathogenesis of the cardiovascular toxicity of cocaine use has been largely reviewed, and the most recent data indicate a fundamental role of oxidative stress in cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity, indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanisms of oxidative stress. The comprehension of the mechanisms involving mitochondrial dysfunction could help in selecting the most appropriate mitochondria injury biological marker, such as superoxide dismutase-2 activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin. The potential use of modulators of oxidative stress (mitoubiquinone, the short-chain quinone idebenone, and allopurinol) in the treatment of cocaine cardiotoxic effects is also suggested to promote further investigations on these potential mitochondria-targeted antioxidant strategies. Manuela Graziani, Paolo Sarti, Marzia Arese, Maria Chiara Magnifico, Aldo Badiani, and Luciano Saso Copyright © 2017 Manuela Graziani et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA Regulation of Oxidative Stress-Induced Cellular Senescence Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/2398696/ Aging is a time-related process of functional deterioration at cellular, tissue, organelle, and organismal level that ultimately brings life to end. Cellular senescence, a state of permanent cell growth arrest in response to cellular stress, is believed to be the driver of the aging process and age-related disorders. The free radical theory of aging, referred to as oxidative stress (OS) theory below, is one of the most studied aging promoting mechanisms. In addition, genetics and epigenetics also play large roles in accelerating and/or delaying the onset of aging and aging-related diseases. Among various epigenetic events, microRNAs (miRNAs) turned out to be important players in controlling OS, aging, and cellular senescence. miRNAs can generate rapid and reversible responses and, therefore, are ideal players for mediating an adaptive response against stress through their capacity to fine-tune gene expression. However, the importance of miRNAs in regulating OS in the context of aging and cellular senescence is largely unknown. The purpose of our article is to highlight recent advancements in the regulatory role of miRNAs in OS-induced cellular senescence. Huaije Bu, Sophia Wedel, Maria Cavinato, and Pidder Jansen-Dürr Copyright © 2017 Huaije Bu et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Inhibits Apoptosis and Promotes Proliferation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Isolated from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes by Reducing Cellular Oxidative Stress” Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/1083618/ Daria Nawrocka, Katarzyna Kornicka, Joanna Szydlarska, and Krzysztof Marycz Copyright © 2017 Daria Nawrocka et al. All rights reserved. Tissue- and Condition-Specific Isoforms of Mammalian Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunits: From Function to Human Disease Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/1534056/ Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen. COX consists of 14 subunits, three and eleven encoded, respectively, by the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Tissue- and condition-specific isoforms have only been reported for COX but not for the other oxidative phosphorylation complexes, suggesting a fundamental requirement to fine-tune and regulate the essentially irreversible reaction catalyzed by COX. This article briefly discusses the assembly of COX in mammals and then reviews the functions of the six nuclear-encoded COX subunits that are expressed as isoforms in specialized tissues including those of the liver, heart and skeletal muscle, lung, and testes: COX IV-1, COX IV-2, NDUFA4, NDUFA4L2, COX VIaL, COX VIaH, COX VIb-1, COX VIb-2, COX VIIaH, COX VIIaL, COX VIIaR, COX VIIIH/L, and COX VIII-3. We propose a model in which the isoforms mediate the interconnected regulation of COX by (1) adjusting basal enzyme activity to mitochondrial capacity of a given tissue; (2) allosteric regulation to adjust energy production to need; (3) altering proton pumping efficiency under certain conditions, contributing to thermogenesis; (4) providing a platform for tissue-specific signaling; (5) stabilizing the COX dimer; and (6) modulating supercomplex formation. Christopher A. Sinkler, Hasini Kalpage, Joseph Shay, Icksoo Lee, Moh H. Malek, Lawrence I. Grossman, and Maik Hüttemann Copyright © 2017 Christopher A. Sinkler et al. All rights reserved. Ziziphus nummularia Inhibits Inflammation-Induced Atherogenic Phenotype of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/4134093/ Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a CVD characterized by plaque formation resulting from inflammation-induced insults to endothelial cells, monocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Despite significant advances, current treatments for atherosclerosis remain insufficient, prompting the search for alternative modalities, including herbal medicine. Ziziphus nummularia is an herb commonly used in the amelioration of symptoms associated with many health conditions such as cold, diarrhea, cancer, and diabetes. However, its effect on the inflammation-induced behavior of VSMCs remains unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of the ethanolic extract of Z. nummularia (ZNE) on TNF-α-induced phenotypic changes of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). The treatment of HASMCs with ZNE decreased cell proliferation, adhesion to fibronectin, migration, and invasion. ZNE treatment also caused a concentration- and time-dependent reduction in the TNF-α-induced expression of matrix metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9, NF-κB, and cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Furthermore, ZNE decreased the adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to HASMCs and endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These data provide evidence for the anti-inflammatory effect of Ziziphus nummularia, along with potential implications for its use as an agent that could ameliorate inflammation-induced atherogenic phenotype of VSMCs in atherosclerosis. Manal Fardoun, Tuqa Al-Shehabi, Ahmed El-Yazbi, Khodr Issa, Fouad Zouein, Dina Maaliki, Rabah Iratni, and Ali H. Eid Copyright © 2017 Manal Fardoun et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “(−)-Epicatechin Prevents Blood Pressure Increase and Reduces Locomotor Hyperactivity in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats” Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/9483845/ M. Kluknavsky, P. Balis, A. Puzserova, J. Radosinska, A. Berenyiova, M. Drobna, S. Lukac, J. Muchova, and I. Bernatova Copyright © 2017 M. Kluknavsky et al. All rights reserved. Camellia sinensis Prevents Perinatal Nicotine-Induced Neurobehavioral Alterations, Tissue Injury, and Oxidative Stress in Male and Female Mice Newborns Mon, 15 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/5985219/ Nicotine exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and leads to behavioral alterations in early childhood and young adulthood. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against perinatal nicotine-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 50 mg/kg C. sinensis on gestational day 1 (PD1) to postnatal day 15 (D15) and were subcutaneously injected with 0.25 mg/kg nicotine from PD12 to D15. Nicotine-exposed newborns showed significant delay in eye opening and hair appearance and declined body weight at birth and at D21. Nicotine induced neuromotor alterations in both male and female newborns evidenced by the suppressed righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes. Nicotine-exposed newborns exhibited declined memory, learning, and equilibrium capabilities, as well as marked anxiety behavior. C. sinensis significantly improved the physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavioral performance in nicotine-exposed male and female newborns. In addition, C. sinensis prevented nicotine-induced tissue injury and lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defenses in the cerebellum and medulla oblongata of male and female newborns. In conclusion, this study shows that C. sinensis confers protective effects against perinatal nicotine-induced neurobehavioral alterations, tissue injury, and oxidative stress in mice newborns. Jamaan S. Ajarem, Gadh Al-Basher, Ahmed A. Allam, and Ayman M. Mahmoud Copyright © 2017 Jamaan S. Ajarem et al. All rights reserved. Antifatigue Effect of Luteolin-6-C-Neohesperidoside on Oxidative Stress Injury Induced by Forced Swimming of Rats through Modulation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways Mon, 15 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/3159358/ Luteolin-6-C-neohesperidoside (LN) is a flavonoid isolated from moso bamboo leaf. This study was performed to evaluate the antifatigue effect of LN on a rat model undergoing the weight-loaded forced swimming test (FST). Briefly, male Sprague-Dawley rats (20–22 weeks old) were forced to undertake exhaustive swimming every other day for 3 weeks. Each swimming session was followed by the administration of distilled water, LN (25–75 mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) 1 h later. Oral administration of LN significantly improved exercise endurance; normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers; and decreased serum lactic acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels of rats that underwent FST. Moreover, LN enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by enzyme activity assays, RT-PCR, and Western blotting, as well as decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 and increasing the level of anti-inflammatory (IL-10) in the liver and skeletal muscle. These results suggested that LN reduces both physical and mental effects of chronic fatigue, probably by attenuating oxidative stress injury and inflammatory responses in the liver and skeletal muscle. This study thus supports the use of LN in functional foods for antifatigue and antioxidant effects. Fang-fang Duan, Ying Guo, Jing-wan Li, and Ke Yuan Copyright © 2017 Fang-fang Duan et al. All rights reserved. The Stimulated Glycolytic Pathway Is Able to Maintain ATP Levels and Kinetic Patterns of Bovine Epididymal Sperm Subjected to Mitochondrial Uncoupling Tue, 09 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/1682393/ Studies have reported the importance of mitochondria in sperm functionality. However, for some species, the glycolytic pathway appears to be as important as oxidative phosphorylation in ATP synthesis and sperm kinetics. These mechanisms have not been fully elucidated for bovine spermatozoa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of mitochondria and the glycolytic pathway in ATP synthesis, sperm movement patterns, and oxidative homeostasis of epididymal spermatozoa in bovine specimens. We observed that mitochondrial uncoupling with protonophores significantly reduced ATP levels. However, these levels were reestablished after stimulation of the glycolytic pathway. We verified the same pattern of results for sperm kinetic variables and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, we suggest that, after its appropriate stimulation, the glycolytic pathway is capable of maintaining ATP levels, sperm kinetic patterns, and oxidative balance of bovine epididymal spermatozoa submitted to mitochondrial uncoupling. João D. A. Losano, Juan Fernando Padín, Iago Méndez-López, Daniel S. R. Angrimani, Antonio G. García, Valquiria H. Barnabe, and Marcilio Nichi Copyright © 2017 João D. A. Losano et al. All rights reserved. Small Dense Low-Density Lipoprotein as Biomarker for Atherosclerotic Diseases Tue, 09 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/1273042/ Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. LDL consists of several subclasses of particles with different sizes and densities, including large buoyant (lb) and intermediate and small dense (sd) LDLs. It has been well documented that sdLDL has a greater atherogenic potential than that of other LDL subfractions and that sdLDL cholesterol (sdLDL-C) proportion is a better marker for prediction of cardiovascular disease than that of total LDL-C. Circulating sdLDL readily undergoes multiple atherogenic modifications in blood plasma, such as desialylation, glycation, and oxidation, that further increase its atherogenicity. Modified sdLDL is a potent inductor of inflammatory processes associated with cardiovascular disease. Several laboratory methods have been developed for separation of LDL subclasses, and the results obtained by different methods can not be directly compared in most cases. Recently, the development of homogeneous assays facilitated the LDL subfraction analysis making possible large clinical studies evaluating the significance of sdLDL in the development of cardiovascular disease. Further studies are needed to establish guidelines for sdLDL evaluation and correction in clinical practice. Ekaterina A. Ivanova, Veronika A. Myasoedova, Alexandra A. Melnichenko, Andrey V. Grechko, and Alexander N. Orekhov Copyright © 2017 Ekaterina A. Ivanova et al. All rights reserved. Red Yeast Rice Protects Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Proangiogenic Cells against High-Glucose-Induced Senescence and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 Sun, 07 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/3831750/ The inflammation and oxidative stress of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs), also named endothelial progenitor cells, triggered by hyperglycemia contributes significantly to vascular dysfunction. There is supporting evidence that the consumption of red yeast rice (RYR; Monascus purpureus-fermented rice) reduces the vascular complications of diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of RYR extract in PACs, focusing particularly on the role of a potent antioxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We found that treatment with RYR extract induced nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in PACs. RYR extract inhibited high-glucose-induced (30 mM) PAC senescence and the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner. The HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX also decreased high-glucose-induced cell senescence and oxidative stress, whereas the HO-1 enzyme inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX and HO-1 small interfering RNA significantly reversed RYR extract-caused inhibition of senescence and reduction of oxidative stress in high-glucose-treated PACs. These results suggest that RYR extract serves as alternative and complementary medicine in the treatment of these diseases, by inducing HO-1, thereby decreasing the vascular complications of diabetes. Jung-Tung Liu, Huey-Yi Chen, Wen-Chi Chen, Kee-Ming Man, and Yung-Hsiang Chen Copyright © 2017 Jung-Tung Liu et al. All rights reserved. Spontaneous Production of Glutathione-Conjugated Forms of 1,2-Dichloropropane: Comparative Study on Metabolic Activation Processes of Dihaloalkanes Associated with Occupational Cholangiocarcinoma Sun, 07 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/9736836/ Recently, epidemiological studies revealed a positive relationship between an outbreak of occupational cholangiocarcinoma and exposure to organic solvents containing 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP). In 1,2-DCP-administered animal models, we previously found biliary excretion of potentially oncogenic metabolites consisting of glutathione- (GSH-) conjugated forms of 1,2-DCP (GS-DCPs); however, the GS-DCP production pathway remains unknown. To enhance the understanding of 1,2-DCP-related risks to human health, we examined the reactivity of GSH with 1,2-DCP in vitro and compared it to that with dichloromethane (DCM), the other putative substance responsible for occupational cholangiocarcinoma. Our results showed that 1,2-DCP was spontaneously conjugated with GSH, whereas this spontaneous reaction was hardly detected between DCM and GSH. Further analysis revealed that glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) exhibited less effect on the 1,2-DCP reaction as compared with that observed for DCM. Although GSTT1-mediated bioactivation of dihaloalkanes could be a plausible explanation for the production of reactive metabolites related to carcinogenesis based on previous studies, this catalytic pathway might not mainly contribute to 1,2-DCP-related occupational cholangiocarcinoma. Considering the higher catalytic activity of GSTT1 on DCM as compared with that on 1,2-DCP, our findings suggested differences in the activation processes associated with 1,2-DCP and DCM metabolism. Yu Toyoda, Tappei Takada, and Hiroshi Suzuki Copyright © 2017 Yu Toyoda et al. All rights reserved. Monoamine Oxidases, Oxidative Stress, and Altered Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiac Ageing Thu, 04 May 2017 08:48:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/3017947/ The advances in healthcare over the past several decades have resulted in populations now living longer. With this increase in longevity, a wider prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is more common and known to be a major factor in rising healthcare costs. A wealth of scientific evidence has implicated cell senescence as an important component in the etiology of these age-dependent pathologies. A number of studies indicate that an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to trigger and accelerate the cardiac senescence processes, and a new role of monoamine oxidases, MAO-A and MAO-B, is emerging in this context. These mitochondrial enzymes regulate the level of catecholamines and serotonin by catalyzing their oxidative deamination in the heart. MAOs’ expression substantially increases with ageing (6-fold MAO-A in the heart and 4-fold MAO-B in neuronal tissue), and their involvement in cardiac diseases is supposedly related to the formation of ROS, via the hydrogen peroxide produced during the substrate degradation. Here, we will review the most recent advances in this field and describe why MAOs could be effective targets in order to prevent age-associated cardiovascular disease. Damien Maggiorani, Nicola Manzella, Dale E. Edmondson, Andrea Mattevi, Angelo Parini, Claudia Binda, and Jeanne Mialet-Perez Copyright © 2017 Damien Maggiorani et al. All rights reserved. The Repeated Administration of Resveratrol Has Measurable Effects on Circulating T-Cell Subsets in Humans Thu, 04 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/6781872/ Preclinical studies have shown that resveratrol exerts immunomodulatory effects with potential clinical value in the amelioration of autoimmune disorders and cancer prevention; however, little is known about the in vivo effects of this naturally occurring polyphenol on human immune cells. We assessed the effects of repeated doses of resveratrol (1000 mg/day for 28 days) on circulating immune cells in healthy Japanese individuals. Resveratrol was safe and well tolerated and was associated with significant increases in the numbers of circulating γδ T cells and regulatory T cells and resulted in small, yet significant, decreases in the plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and MCP-1 and a significant increase in the plasma antioxidant activity compared with the corresponding antioxidant baseline activity and with that in four control individuals. In in vitro studies, resveratrol significantly improved the growth of γδ T cells and regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that resveratrol has some clear biological effects on human circulating immune cells. Further studies are necessary to interpret the long-term immunological changes associated with resveratrol treatment. J. Luis Espinoza, Ly Quoc Trung, Pleiades T. Inaoka, Kayoko Yamada, Dao T. An, Shohei Mizuno, Shinji Nakao, and Akiyoshi Takami Copyright © 2017 J. Luis Espinoza et al. All rights reserved. Caveolin-1: An Oxidative Stress-Related Target for Cancer Prevention Thu, 04 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2017/7454031/ Aberrant oxidative metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Reactive species overproduction could promote carcinogenesis via inducing genetic mutations and activating oncogenic pathways, and thus, antioxidant therapy was considered as an important strategy for cancer prevention and treatment. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a constituent protein of caveolae, has been shown to mediate tumorigenesis and progression through oxidative stress modulation recently. Reactive species could modulate the expression, degradation, posttranslational modifications, and membrane trafficking of Cav-1, while Cav-1-targeted treatments could scavenge the reactive species. More importantly, emerging evidences have indicated that multiple antioxidants could exert antitumor activities in cancer cells and protective activities in normal cells by modulating the Cav-1 pathway. Altogether, these findings indicate that Cav-1 may be a promising oxidative stress-related target for cancer antioxidant prevention. Elucidating the underlying interaction mechanisms between oxidative stress and Cav-1 is helpful for enhancing the preventive effects of antioxidants on cancer, for improving clinical outcomes of antioxidant-related therapeutics in cancer patients, and for developing Cav-1 targeted drugs. Herein, we summarize the available evidence of the roles of Cav-1 and oxidative stress in tumorigenesis and development and shed novel light on designing strategies for cancer prevention or treatment by utilizing the interaction mode between Cav-1 and oxidative stress. Shengqi Wang, Neng Wang, Yifeng Zheng, Jin Zhang, Fengxue Zhang, and Zhiyu Wang Copyright © 2017 Shengqi Wang et al. All rights reserved.