The Effects of a Recollection-Based Occupational Therapy Program of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomized Controlled TrialRead the full article
Occupational Therapy International publishes research reflecting the practice of occupational therapy throughout the world. Topics include reliability and validity of clinical instruments, assistive technology, community rehabilitation etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Mackenzie worked in orthopaedics, general medicine and managed the Hunter Equipment Service and PADP services before being appointed as the first occupational therapist employed by community health services in Newcastle.
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A Systematic Review on Clinimetric Properties of Play Instruments for Occupational Therapy Practice
Play is considered the main occupation for children. Pediatric occupational therapists utilize play either for evaluation or intervention purpose. However, play is not properly measured by occupational therapists, and the use of play instrument is limited. This systematic review was aimed at identifying play instruments relevant to occupational therapy practice and its clinimetric properties. A systematic search was conducted on six databases (Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection, Scopus, and ASEAN Citation Index) in January 2020. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using Law and MacDermid’s Appraisal for Clinical Measurement Research Reports, and psychometric properties of play instruments were evaluated using Terwee’s checklist while the clinical utility is extracted from each instrument. Initial search identifies 1,098 articles, and only 30 articles were included in the final analysis, extracting 8 play instruments. These instruments were predominantly practiced in the Western culture, which consists of several psychometric evidences. The Revised Knox Preschool Play Scale is considered the most extensive and comprehensive play instrument for extrinsic aspect, whereas the Test of Playfulness + Test of Environmental Supportiveness Unifying Measure is a promising play instrument for intrinsic aspect on play, where both instruments utilize observation. My Child’s Play is a potential questionnaire-based play instrument. However, the current development of play instruments in the occupational therapy field is immature and constantly evolving, and occupational therapists should exercise good clinical reasoning when selecting a play instrument to use in practice.
Effects of a Cognitive-Functional Intervention Method on Improving Executive Function and Self-Directed Learning in School-Aged Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Single-Subject Design Study
Background. School-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) face many difficulties with self-directed learning because of their poor executive function. This leads to secondary problems such as learning disabilities and depression, so the role of intervention to improve executive function in school-aged children with ADHD is important. Objective. The present study is aimed to investigate how cognitive-functional (Cog-Fun) intervention affected executive function of school-aged children with ADHD and the sustainability of these effects. To investigate the effects of changes in the executive function of school-aged children with ADHD through Cog-Fun intervention in self-directed learning. Method. A single-subject A-B-A research design was employed in this study. Three children aged 9-10 years who were diagnosed with ADHD were selected. A total of 17 experimental sessions were conducted. The Cog-Fun intervention program was implemented during the intervention phase. To measure dependent variables, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and Homework Problems Checklist (HPC) were used. Significant changes in executive function assessed by the Children’s Color Trails Test (CCTT) and Stroop test were analyzed through two-standard deviation band analysis. Additionally, video clips of task performance were analyzed to examine qualitative performance changes in self-directed learning. Result. All three participants presented statistically significant changes with a number of near-misses of CCTT and color words score of Stroop test during the intervention. -scores of the Global Executive Composite (GEC) decreased after the intervention, indicating improvement in executive function. The follow-up period revealed retention of the improved executive function. Additionally, self-directed learning improved in all participants after the implementation Cog-Fun intervention. Conclusion. The study supports the effectiveness of Cog-Fun intervention in improving executive function in school-aged children with ADHD and confirmed that the improvement of executive function ultimately leads to the improvement of self-directed learning performance.
Initial Development of the Activity Card Sort-Advancing Inclusive Participation from a Homeless Population Perspective
Importance. Nonsanctioned occupations are those deemed socially unacceptable, unhealthy, or illegal, yet they hold meaning for individuals. A gap in occupational therapy evaluation and intervention to address a broader perspective on occupations prompted the adaptation of the Activity Card Sort tool to explore participation in nonsanctioned occupations. Methods. Develop a new version of the Activity Card Sort-Advancing Inclusive Participation to include occupations experienced by the homeless population, including nonsanctioned occupations. This study occurred in two phases: (1) tool development (item selection, content expert review, line development drawing, and assessment of content validity) and (2) tool use to determine face validity. Participants were selected through a convenience sample at a local homeless shelter and academic institution. Participants experiencing homelessness (phase 1: , phase 2: ) were required to be seeking services at the homeless shelter, while nonhomeless participants (phase 2: ) worked full-time, resided with a significant other, and had personal transportation. Results. An assessment of 76 occupations, corresponding line drawings, and follow-up questions was created. An initial construct validity study demonstrated differences between occupational participation of those who are homeless and nonhomeless in the areas of social engagement, nonsanctioned occupations, work and education, and home management. Both groups reported previous, current, or desired engagement in the occupations identified in the assessment. Conclusions and relevance. The purpose of this study was to create an inclusive assessment for use in the homeless population and complete a construct validity study of the assessment tool. Although the results indicated some differences in the frequency with which occupations were performed, the results demonstrated that all individuals participate in occupations that many not contribute to their health and wellness. This initial work supports the future development of a tool that is inclusive of all occupations to obtain a holistic picture of an individual’s participation.
The Usefulness of the Pressure Algometer in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Orofacial Pain Patients: A Systematic Review
Study Design. Data were obtained from PubMed, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, ProQuest, Scopus, Medline (EBSCO), and ScienceDirect databases. Literature search was performed from 1 December 2017 through 12 January 2018. The titles and abstracts from electronic search results were screened for keywords and evaluated by two observers, with the following inclusion criteria: published since 1997, written in English, and encompassing human research. Exclusion criteria were as follows: articles published earlier than 1997, not written in English, animal studies, studies with the use of medicaments, and articles examining receptor interactions. Objectives. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) may be an efficient approach to screen and evaluate orofacial pain. However, the results of previous PPT studies have varied greatly. The aim of this paper was to determine whether the PPT is an efficient approach for screening and evaluating orofacial pain. Methods. The search yielded 123 articles. After removal of duplicates and screening of abstracts, 32 articles were selected for further evaluation. The Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing the risk of bias was used for the evaluation of the studies. Results. The studies covered a total of 4403 adult patients, aged 16-62, and 30 children. The studies investigated the reliability and validity of the PPT (measured by a pressure algometer) in TMD patients. The PPT was investigated in relation to headache, menstrual cycle, oral contraception, occlusal interference, and occlusal appliances. Generally, the risk of bias was low to unclear. Some structural limitations were inherent in the studies, such as small samples and short duration of the testing involved. Also, the analyzed studies lacked consistency in study design and patient management. Pressure increase values differed from 20 kPa/s to 50 kPa/s and from 0.5 kg/cm2/s to 2 kg/cm2/s. Descriptions of the PPT examination points also varied, from very precise and repeatable to a simple listing of anatomical points. The number of measurements varied from 1 to 5 at each visit. The intervals ranged from 5 seconds to 15 minutes. However, some studies confirmed that the pressure algometer is an effective tool for determining the source of orofacial pain. Conclusions. Based on the analyzed articles, the authors argue that the PPT is not an efficient approach for screening and evaluating orofacial pain. What is more, it should not be used as the only diagnostics tool for patients with orofacial pain. Importantly, however, additional factors should be considered in the future for the evaluation of the PPT, including body symmetry and posture, hormone levels and the menstrual phase in women, and the use of medications and its influence on the PPT. Further clinical trials should also be performed on the PPT, examining head and neck pain patients, with more precise study design and larger samples.
The Influence of Culture on Occupational Therapy Practice in Jordan
Background. Occupational therapy’s origins draw from Western culture, values, and beliefs which may impact the application of traditional occupational therapy practice in non-Western cultures. Purpose. This study explored how occupational therapists in Jordan facilitate occupational therapy practice within Islamic Eastern culture. Method. A phenomenological approach was used in this study. Semistructured interviews were conducted with eleven occupational therapists that work in Jordan and have at least two years of experience. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Results. Three central themes emerged: impact of Jordanian culture and Islamic beliefs about independence and disability on occupational therapy practice, the therapists’ notions of ideal occupational therapy practice vs. daily reality, and challenges posed by workspace and the availability of equipment. Conclusion. This study highlights the growing need to translate and expand the core values of occupational therapy to align with cultures in non-Western countries and cultures.
Looking into the Content of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM): A Danish Cross-Sectional Study
Purpose. To examine the content validity of the Danish version of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM-DK). Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study was performed in a hospital and a community rehabilitation centre. The content validity of the COPM was assessed by relating the clients’ prioritized occupational performance issues (OPIs) to the conceptual model of the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) and the levels of the Taxonomic Code of Occupational Performance (TCOP). Six occupational therapy lecturers participated in classifying the OPIs using the TCOP. Results. A total of 112 clients from a regional and community-based rehabilitation participated. The 56% regional participants came from a hospital’s hand and knee surgery department. The remaining 44% participants came from a community-based rehabilitation centre with in- and outpatient departments. There were 44% males, with a mean age of 65.2 years. They prioritized 495 OPIs, of which 40% concerned self-care, 32% productivity, and 28% leisure. The prioritized OPIs were divided into a total of 224 different OPIs. There were significant differences in which areas were prioritized in the various population groups. Of the OPIs, 64.3% could be classified into the TCOP levels of occupation and activity, i.e., 1/3 of the OPIs were related to tasks and actions, and thus beyond the scope of the COPM. The interrater agreement of the OPI classification was only fair (kappa 0.3). Conclusion. The content validity of the COPM seems to depend on how and with which clients it is administered. Caution must be taken to secure OPIs on the higher levels of the TCOP, while maintaining the clients’ right to nominate OPI preferences. Therefore, an introductory course and on-going support are recommendable. Bearing this in mind, the COPM seems useful to identify individual clients’ prioritized OPIs in a Danish context.