Relationship between Mastery Motivation and Sensory Processing Difficulties in South Korean Children with Developmental Coordination DisorderRead the full article
Occupational Therapy International publishes research reflecting the practice of occupational therapy throughout the world. Topics include reliability and validity of clinical instruments, assistive technology, community rehabilitation etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Mackenzie worked in orthopaedics, general medicine and managed the Hunter Equipment Service and PADP services before being appointed as the first occupational therapist employed by community health services in Newcastle.
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Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC2): Cross-Cultural Validity, Content Validity, and Interrater Reliability in Thai Children
Introduction. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC2) is a standardized test for detecting children with movement difficulty. It was established and is used widely in Western countries. Studying cross-cultural validity and reliability was necessary before using the MABC2 with Thai children. Purposes. To study cross-cultural validity, content validity, and interrater reliability of the MABC2. Method. The MABC2-Age Band 2 (AB2: children aged 7-10 years) was translated into Thai from the source version of the MABC2 by using the following steps: forward translation, backward translation, panel discussion, and testing of the prefinal version of the Thai-MABC2-AB2. Five occupational therapists checked the content validity of the test. Twenty-nine children, aged 7-10 years, were examined by two testers in order to establish interrater reliability. Results. This cross-cultural study demonstrated validity in the Thai context. Content validity was good with an item-objective congruence (IOC) range from 0.73 to 0.95. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of interrater reliability ranged from 0.71 to 1.00. Conclusion. The Thai-MABC2-AB2 is a good fit for use in a clinical and Thai cultural setting. Interrater reliability was moderate to good, which meant results between testers were consistent.
The Child Evaluation Checklist (CHECK): A Screening Questionnaire for Detecting Daily Functional “Red Flags” of Underrecognized Neurodevelopmental Disorders among Preschool Children
Background. Early identification of invisible comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders, such as specific learning disorders, attention deficit hyperactive disorders, and developmental coordination disorders, is crucial to improving children’s daily functional deficits related to executive functions. However, a practical questionnaire to address parents’ concerns is lacking. Aims. To develop a reliable and valid assessment tool that can identify young children at risk for invisible underrecognized neurodevelopmental disorders. This article describes the development and standardization of the Child Evaluation Checklist (CHECK). Methods and Procedures. Participants were 186 children aged 3 to 6 years: 91 with suspected invisible neurodevelopmental disorders, and 95 controls with typical development. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire, the CHECK, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Outcomes and Results. The CHECK’s construct validity indicated high internal consistency for each part (Part A: ; Part B: ) and moderate-to-high consistency for each of Part A’s four factors. Significant correlations, as well as significant group differences, were found between the CHECK factors and BRIEF-P scores. Conclusions and Implications. Use of the CHECK allows for timely identification of suspicious (“red flags”) invisible neurodevelopmental disorders. It may support parents’ sufficient awareness and knowledge to refer their children for comprehensive evaluation and intervention.
Psychometric Properties of Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC)
Background. Some children may encounter difficulties in processing sensory stimuli, which may affect their ability to participate in activities of daily living. Self-regulation abilities may also affect children on how to process different sensory experiences. The Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC) was developed as a single, parent-reported instrument for the examination of sensory processing and self-regulation difficulties in children. Aims. This study is aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the SPSRC and examine the patterns of self-regulation and sensory processing in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods and Procedures. The contents of the SPSRC were validated by a group of experts, and a field test was subsequently conducted to examine the reliability and validity of this instrument in a sample of 997 typically developing children and 78 children with ASD. Outcomes and Results. The results of the validation and field test analyses suggest that the SPSRC exhibits high internal consistency, good intrarater reliability, and a valid ability to measure and discriminate sensory processing and self-regulation in children aged 3–8 years with and without ASD. Conclusions and Implications. The current results supported the reliability and validity of SPSRC to assess a child’s sensory processing and self-regulation performance in activities of daily living. The study findings warrant further investigation to compare the performance of the SPSRC with laboratory-based tests, as this would better elucidate sensory responsivity in children with sensory modulation disorders from both clinical and research perspectives.
Student Perceptions of Growth-Facilitating and Growth-Constraining Factors of Practice Placements: A Comparison between Japanese and United Kingdom Occupational Therapy Students
This study compared growth-facilitating and growth-constraining experiences of practice placements as perceived by occupational therapy students from Japan and the United Kingdom (UK). Fifteen students from Japan and 14 from the UK used a nominal group technique (NGT) to rank, individually and in groups, their subjective learning experiences during practice placements. Qualitative analysis and simple tabulation based on ranking of items obtained in the NGT were performed. Five item categories were identified from both Japanese and UK students: self-reflection, the role of supervisor, sense of responsibility, clinical knowledge and skills, and time management. Results showed that all students perceived opportunities for self-reflection and feedback from supervisors as growth facilitating and students’ passive attitudes towards requirements of practice placements as growth constraining. Country-specific differences between students were observed in clinical knowledge and skills, sense of responsibility, and time management. Japanese students perceived that preparatory study led to successfully treating clients during placement, and they tended to commit to placement assignments at the expense of time outside. UK students valued working independently with a sense of responsibility but considered time-management problems within their placement hours as growth constraining. These differences can be explained by different social norms and expectations of students from Japan and the UK.
Professional Reasoning in Occupational Therapy: A Scoping Review
Background/Aim. Professional reasoning in occupational therapy is the process used by practitioners to plan, direct, perform, and reflect on client care. The professional’s ability to manage the process of the intervention is structured around it, thereby influencing the effectiveness of the work carried out. The objectives of this research were to identify and describe (a) the historical development of this area of research from 1982 to 2017 and (b) the nature and volume of the scientific literature on professional reasoning in occupational therapy and the evidence that exists today. Methods. A scoping review method was used to carry out an historical mapping of research on professional reasoning and to summarise the lines of research explored to date. The review was conducted in five stages following the PRISMA guidelines. After applying the selection criteria, the search identified 303 references. Results. The results are presented under three headings: (a) nature and volume of publications on professional reasoning in occupational therapy according to number and year of publications, journal, country, author, and line of research; (b) historical trends in the scientific literature on professional reasoning in occupational therapy since 1982; and (c) methodological aspects of the research. Each of them is discussed through statistical analysis. Conclusions. The research about professional reasoning in occupational therapy is a field of empirical nature, in which qualitative studies predominate. Principal lines of research are focused on specific fields of practice, undergraduates, and theoretical aspects of professional reasoning. There were identified three historical phases with common features in terms of objectives and research methods.
The Priming Effects of Mirror Visual Feedback on Bilateral Task Practice: A Randomized Controlled Study
The priming effect of mirror visual feedback can be simply provided by inexpensive mirror therapy (MT), which exhibits beneficial effects on sensorimotor recovery in stroke. The present study was a single-blind pretest-posttest study that examined whether the priming effect of mirror visual feedback on bilateral task practice would render better outcomes. Twenty-three patients with chronic stroke were randomized to receive hospital-based task-oriented MT or bilateral arm training (BAT) for 4 weeks at 90 minutes/day, 3 days/week and a home practice for 30-40 minutes/day, 5 days/week. There was the potential trend for MT to improve temperature sense as measured by the revised Nottingham Sensory Assessment (Cohen’s ; 95% confidence interval, -0.09 to 2.09), and MT increased the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 total score (; 0.003 to 1.71). MT also showed a trend for greater improvements in the Motor Activity Log (amount of use: ; -0.24 to 1.44; quality of movement: ; -0.35 to 1.31). MT involving bilateral movement practice with the priming effect of mirror visual feedback may render beneficial effects. The unilateral approach or MT augmented by extra feedback might be appropriate modifications.