Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Face Validity of the Functional Mobility Assessment into Brazilian PortugueseRead the full article
Occupational Therapy International publishes research reflecting the practice of occupational therapy throughout the world. Topics include reliability and validity of clinical instruments, assistive technology, community rehabilitation etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Mackenzie worked in orthopaedics, general medicine and managed the Hunter Equipment Service and PADP services before being appointed as the first occupational therapist employed by community health services in Newcastle.
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Daily Performance of Adolescents with Executive Function Deficits: An Empirical Study Using a Complex-Cooking Task
Purpose. To characterize and analyze the performance of adolescents with executive function deficits through the Children’s Cooking Task (CCT) as a performance-based complex ecological assessment. Methods. Participants were 41 adolescents (aged 10–14 years) with normal intellectual function and executive function deficit profiles based on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) parent reports and self-reports (BRIEF-SR) and the WebNeuro and 40 controls with typical development matched by age and gender. Participants in both groups performed the CCT, an ecological standardized complex task. Results. Significant group differences were found for all CCT outcome measures (total number of errors, task duration, and all qualitative rating variables). Significant correlations were found among children with executive function deficit profiles between the CCT performance duration and total number of errors and the BRIEF-SR subscale score. Two separate discriminant function analyses described primarily by the CCT correctly classified the study groups. Conclusion. The poor performance of adolescents with executive function deficit profiles exhibited through the standardized complex task, as well as the relationships with their executive functions, supplies better insight about their daily confrontations. Identifying how they perform may lead to development of focused interventions to improve these adolescents’ daily performance, participation, and wellbeing.
Relationship between Mastery Motivation and Sensory Processing Difficulties in South Korean Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder
The aim of this study was to identify the correlation between mastery motivation and sensory processing difficulties among South Korean children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Ninety-nine children aged 4–7 years with DCD participated. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire was used to assess the mastery motivation of the children, and the Short Sensory Profile was used to assess the children’s sensory processing difficulties. All subjects showed lower mastery motivation and definite differences in sensory processing. Mastery motivation was significantly correlated with sensory processing (, ). Mastery motivation predicted 41.1% of the sensory processing. In particular, a negative reaction to failure in mastery situations scale () and general competence compared to peers scale () in mastery motivation were significant predictors. This study indicated that sensory processing difficulties and lack of mastery motivation were identified among children with DCD in South Korea. And the children with high mastery motivation show less difficulty in sensory processing. It is suggested to develop possible solution for higher mastery motivation to improve sensory processing of the children with DCD in South Korea.
Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC2): Cross-Cultural Validity, Content Validity, and Interrater Reliability in Thai Children
Introduction. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC2) is a standardized test for detecting children with movement difficulty. It was established and is used widely in Western countries. Studying cross-cultural validity and reliability was necessary before using the MABC2 with Thai children. Purposes. To study cross-cultural validity, content validity, and interrater reliability of the MABC2. Method. The MABC2-Age Band 2 (AB2: children aged 7-10 years) was translated into Thai from the source version of the MABC2 by using the following steps: forward translation, backward translation, panel discussion, and testing of the prefinal version of the Thai-MABC2-AB2. Five occupational therapists checked the content validity of the test. Twenty-nine children, aged 7-10 years, were examined by two testers in order to establish interrater reliability. Results. This cross-cultural study demonstrated validity in the Thai context. Content validity was good with an item-objective congruence (IOC) range from 0.73 to 0.95. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of interrater reliability ranged from 0.71 to 1.00. Conclusion. The Thai-MABC2-AB2 is a good fit for use in a clinical and Thai cultural setting. Interrater reliability was moderate to good, which meant results between testers were consistent.
The Child Evaluation Checklist (CHECK): A Screening Questionnaire for Detecting Daily Functional “Red Flags” of Underrecognized Neurodevelopmental Disorders among Preschool Children
Background. Early identification of invisible comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders, such as specific learning disorders, attention deficit hyperactive disorders, and developmental coordination disorders, is crucial to improving children’s daily functional deficits related to executive functions. However, a practical questionnaire to address parents’ concerns is lacking. Aims. To develop a reliable and valid assessment tool that can identify young children at risk for invisible underrecognized neurodevelopmental disorders. This article describes the development and standardization of the Child Evaluation Checklist (CHECK). Methods and Procedures. Participants were 186 children aged 3 to 6 years: 91 with suspected invisible neurodevelopmental disorders, and 95 controls with typical development. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire, the CHECK, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P). Outcomes and Results. The CHECK’s construct validity indicated high internal consistency for each part (Part A: ; Part B: ) and moderate-to-high consistency for each of Part A’s four factors. Significant correlations, as well as significant group differences, were found between the CHECK factors and BRIEF-P scores. Conclusions and Implications. Use of the CHECK allows for timely identification of suspicious (“red flags”) invisible neurodevelopmental disorders. It may support parents’ sufficient awareness and knowledge to refer their children for comprehensive evaluation and intervention.
Psychometric Properties of Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC)
Background. Some children may encounter difficulties in processing sensory stimuli, which may affect their ability to participate in activities of daily living. Self-regulation abilities may also affect children on how to process different sensory experiences. The Sensory Processing and Self-Regulation Checklist (SPSRC) was developed as a single, parent-reported instrument for the examination of sensory processing and self-regulation difficulties in children. Aims. This study is aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the SPSRC and examine the patterns of self-regulation and sensory processing in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods and Procedures. The contents of the SPSRC were validated by a group of experts, and a field test was subsequently conducted to examine the reliability and validity of this instrument in a sample of 997 typically developing children and 78 children with ASD. Outcomes and Results. The results of the validation and field test analyses suggest that the SPSRC exhibits high internal consistency, good intrarater reliability, and a valid ability to measure and discriminate sensory processing and self-regulation in children aged 3–8 years with and without ASD. Conclusions and Implications. The current results supported the reliability and validity of SPSRC to assess a child’s sensory processing and self-regulation performance in activities of daily living. The study findings warrant further investigation to compare the performance of the SPSRC with laboratory-based tests, as this would better elucidate sensory responsivity in children with sensory modulation disorders from both clinical and research perspectives.
Student Perceptions of Growth-Facilitating and Growth-Constraining Factors of Practice Placements: A Comparison between Japanese and United Kingdom Occupational Therapy Students
This study compared growth-facilitating and growth-constraining experiences of practice placements as perceived by occupational therapy students from Japan and the United Kingdom (UK). Fifteen students from Japan and 14 from the UK used a nominal group technique (NGT) to rank, individually and in groups, their subjective learning experiences during practice placements. Qualitative analysis and simple tabulation based on ranking of items obtained in the NGT were performed. Five item categories were identified from both Japanese and UK students: self-reflection, the role of supervisor, sense of responsibility, clinical knowledge and skills, and time management. Results showed that all students perceived opportunities for self-reflection and feedback from supervisors as growth facilitating and students’ passive attitudes towards requirements of practice placements as growth constraining. Country-specific differences between students were observed in clinical knowledge and skills, sense of responsibility, and time management. Japanese students perceived that preparatory study led to successfully treating clients during placement, and they tended to commit to placement assignments at the expense of time outside. UK students valued working independently with a sense of responsibility but considered time-management problems within their placement hours as growth constraining. These differences can be explained by different social norms and expectations of students from Japan and the UK.