The Development of Leisure Participation Assessment Tool for the ElderlyRead the full article
Occupational Therapy International publishes research reflecting the practice of occupational therapy throughout the world. Topics include reliability and validity of clinical instruments, assistive technology, community rehabilitation etc.
Chief Editor, Dr Mackenzie worked in orthopaedics, general medicine and managed the Hunter Equipment Service and PADP services before being appointed as the first occupational therapist employed by community health services in Newcastle.
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Experience of Filipinos with Spinal Cord Injury in the Use of Assistive Technology: An Occupational Justice Perspective
Assistive technology (AT) is often required to facilitate the performance of occupations and promote inclusion and reduction of dependency among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, only 5-15% of individuals in developing countries have access to AT. This study is aimed at exploring the experience of Filipinos with SCI as they use AT and understand these from an occupational justice (OJ) perspective. This study utilised a hermeneutic phenomenological approach to explore the participants’ experiences with AT usage. Ten participants were recruited from a hospital and communities within Metro Manila, Philippines, and interviewed last January 2020. Hermeneutic analysis was done to interpret the shared meaning embedded within their experiences and was informed by an occupational justice perspective. Exploring the experience of the participants in using AT yielded four themes, namely, (1) engaging in occupations despite limited opportunities, (2) going to various locations amidst an inaccessible environment, (3) striving towards inclusion in spite of attitudinal barriers, and (4) securing needs in light of unfavourable life conditions. Filipinos with SCI deal with numerous structural and contextual factors in daily life. There has been partial enablement of OJ as they incorporate AT in their daily lives as occupational rights are far from being recognised and respected. In infusing an OJ perspective to understanding AT use, OT practitioners are bound to identify problems and courses of action that go beyond traditional service delivery.
Development of Learning Media for the Elderly to Promote Child Health in the Community
The purpose of this study was to develop learning media for the elderly to promote child health. The participants consisted of 172 elderly people aged 60 years and older in a suburban village of northern Thailand. This study consisted of a survey questionnaire and focus group discussions and was divided in to two phases: (1) exploring the needs of the elderly in the knowledge of child health and (2) developing learning media, so that the elderly can learn how to promote child health and evaluate its efficiency in the trial process. Results showed that the participants mostly preferred the topic of activities of daily living (ADL) in children. The learning media contributes two major contents: (a) knowledge of child development in five types of ADL performance, brushing, eating, dressing, bathing, and toileting, and (b) methods in teaching ADL skills in children. The digital contents in the learning media were proposed to experts for professional approval. Efficiency of the learning media was evaluated after the trial, when the participants expressed their opinion, and the users perceived that the learning media was effective, motivating, easy to use, and simple in the terms used, as well as appropriate in the sequence of contents and pictures and font, size, and color of the text.
Cognitive Interviewing during Pretesting of the Prefinal Afrikaans for the Western Cape Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire following Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation
When patient-reported measures are translated and cross-culturally adapted into any language, the process should conclude with cognitive interviewing during pretesting. This article reports on translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire into Afrikaans (for the Western Cape). This qualitative component of a clinical measurement, longitudinal study was aimed at the pretesting and cognitive interviewing of the prefinal Afrikaans (for the Western Cape) DASH questionnaire highlighting the iterative nature thereof. Twenty-two females and eight males with upper limb conditions were recruited to participate at public health care facilities in the Western Cape of South Africa. Cognitive interviews were conducted as a reparative approach with an iterative process through retrospective verbal probing during a debriefing session with 30 participants once they answered all 30 items of the translated DASH questionnaire. The sample included Afrikaans-speaking persons from low socioeconomic backgrounds, with low levels of education and employment (24 of 30 were unemployed). Pragmatic factors and measurement issues were addressed during the interviews. This study provides confirmation that both pragmatic factors and measurement issues need consideration in an iterative process as part of a reparative methodology towards improving patient-reported measures and ensuring strong content validity.
Crosscultural Validation of the Community Integration Questionnaire–Revised in an Italian Population
Objective. The aims of this study are the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Community Integration Questionnaire–Revised (CIQ-R) in Italian in a group of individuals with no clinical evidence of disability. Methods. The test’s internal consistency and validity were assessed by following international guidelines. The test’s internal consistency was examined using Cronbach’s alpha () coefficient. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the test’s concurrent validity compared with the Short Form-12 (SF-12) health survey. Results. The CIQ-R was administrated to 400 people with no clinical evidence of disease, impairment, or disability, aged between 18 and 64. Cronbach’s reported a value of 0.82 in the home integration subscale. The test also showed a good test-retest reliability, with an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.78, and a significant correlation between the total score of the CIQ-R and the Physical Component Summary (PCS) of the SF-12 (), between the “social integration” subscale’s score and PCS12 () and between the “Electronic Social Networking integration” subscale’s score and PCS12 (), with . Conclusion. This is the first study to report the results of the translation and validation of the CIQ-R in Italian. The CIQ-R is an important tool for Italian professionals and can be useful in both clinical practice and research for measuring the level of community integration among the healthy population.
Learning and Development of Diagnostic Reasoning in Occupational Therapy Undergraduate Students
Background/Aim. One way to facilitate occupational therapy undergraduate students transferring their academic skills of data gathering and analysis to professional settings is to ensure they can competently use diagnostic reasoning. Nevertheless, there are several obvious gaps in empirical evidence related to the learning and development of this style of reasoning in occupational therapy undergraduates. The most important are related to promoting higher-order thinking and the use of information to solve problems in the context of professional practice. This study analyses undergraduates’ diagnostic reasoning and its changes during their education. Materials and Methods. This multicentre study was conducted with a descriptive observational design. The study took place at the University of Coruña (Spain), University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain), and University of el Valle (Colombia). The sample was . For data collection, a clinical case was specifically designed. IBM SPSS Statistics (v19) and EPIDAT 3.1 were used for the data analysis. Results. Participants identified and categorized occupational performance problems. However, they had difficulties when identifying and categorizing the occupational performance components (specifically, the symptoms and signs of the disease presented in the study case). They presented limitations to analyse and synthesize the information collected to develop an explanation of the occupational problems and their causes. Conclusions. Undergraduate students’ ability to analyse and synthesize information during data collection is poorly organized, so it makes the problem formulation difficult. This study contributes to the knowledge of undergraduates’ diagnostic reasoning features, specifically the undergraduate students’ capacities and limits to process information during the occupational assessment.
Occupational Therapy in Haiti: A Pilot Study to Identify Intervention Methods Used during Short-Term Medical Missions
Due to the shortage of occupational therapists (OTs) in Haiti and over 800,000 individuals with disabilities, most occupational therapy assessments and interventions are provided by OTs on short-term medical missions (STMMs). Learning which methods OT use to provide assessments and interventions during these STMMs is the first step to understanding how to facilitate follow-up and carry-over for clients and ensure longevity for STMMs in Haiti. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design to gather data on methods used by OTs. Thirty-three OTs, who travelled to Haiti on STMMs, completed a 16-question, online survey. The most common method provided by OTs was education to patients, caregivers, and local providers. Training of Haitian rehabilitation technicians was also prevalent. There was an association between the years of the OTs’ clinical experience and the effort of OTs to train local providers, but this result was not statistically significant. Further research should be implemented on specific methods that can be used in the absence or shortage of Haitian OTs to ensure follow-up for Haitian clients. The sharing of data regarding OT methods on STMMs will promote evidence-based, client-centered, and cost-effective therapy to enhance effective client outcomes.