Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Prostate Cancer
Volume 2011, Article ID 249290, 10 pages
Review Article

Metastasis Update: Human Prostate Carcinoma Invasion via Tubulogenesis

1Department of Pathology, The Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA

Received 1 March 2011; Accepted 25 April 2011

Academic Editor: Cristina Magi-Galluzzi

Copyright © 2011 Raymond B. Nagle and Anne E. Cress. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper proposes that human prostate carcinoma primarily invades as a cohesive cell collective through a mechanism similar to embryonic tubulogenesis, instead of the popular epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) model. Evidence supporting a tubulogenesis model is presented, along with suggestions for additional research. Additionally, observations documenting cell adhesion molecule changes in tissue and stromal components are reviewed, allowing for comparisons between the current branching morphogenesis models and the tubulogenesis model. Finally, the implications of this model on prevailing views of therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for aggressive prostatic disease are considered.