Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Prostate Cancer
Volume 2011, Article ID 819010, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/819010
Review Article

Environment as a Potential Key Determinant of the Continued Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

1Paris Descartes University, 75015 Paris, France
2Clinical Cancer Research Department, European Cancer and Environment Research Institute (ECERI), 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium
3Association for Research and Treatments Against Cancer (ARTAC), 75015 Paris, France

Received 12 January 2011; Revised 16 June 2011; Accepted 12 September 2011

Academic Editor: Cathryn H. Bock

Copyright © 2011 Dominique Belpomme and Philippe Irigaray. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. F. Hankey, E. J. Feuer, L. X. Clegg et al., “Cancer surveillance series: interpreting trends in prostate cancer—Part I: evidence of the effects of screening in recent prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 1017–1024, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Belpomme, P. Irigaray, A. J. Sasco et al., “The growing incidence of cancer: role of lifestyle and screening detection (Review),” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1037–1049, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. G. Welch and P. C. Albertsen, “Prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment after the introduction of prostate-specific antigen screening: 1986–2005,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 101, no. 19, pp. 1325–1329, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Belpomme and P. Irigaray, “Re: prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment after the introduction of prostate-specific antigen screening: 1986–2005,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 102, no. 7, pp. 506–507, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Irigaray, J. A. Newby, R. Clapp et al., “Lifestyle-related factors and environmental agents causing cancer: an overview,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 640–658, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. A. Newby, C. C. Busby, C. V. Howard, and M. J. Platt, “The cancer incidence temporality index: an index to show temporal changes in the age of onset of overall and specific cancer (England and Wales, 1971–1999),” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 623–630, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Belpomme, P. Irigaray, M. Ossondo, D. Vacque, and M. Martin, “Prostate cancer as an environmental disease: an ecological study in the French Caribbean islands, Martinique and Guadeloupe,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1037–1044, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. AMREC Le Cancer en Martinique de 2001 à 2005, Monographie du Registre des Cancers de la Martinique, 2010.
  9. A. Belot, P. Grosclaude, N. Bossard et al., “Cancer incidence and mortality in France over the period 1980–2005,” Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 159–175, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 2010, IARC CancerBase no. 10, http://globocan.iarc.fr/.
  11. Anuario Estadistico De Salud 2009, “Número 38 del Anuario Estadístico de Salud con información actualizada hasta el año 2009,” Ministerio De Salud Publica, Direccion Nacional De registros Medicos Y Estadisticas De Salud, http://files.sld.cu/dne/files/2010/04/anuario-2009e3.pdf.
  12. Office for National Statistics, England, http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/index.html.
  13. Information Services Division, Scotland, ISD Cancer Information Programme, http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Cancer-Statistics/Male-Genital-Organs/#prostate.
  14. Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Cancer Incidence in Wales, 2003–2007, http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/Documents/242/Cancer%20Incidence%20in%20Wales%202003-2007.pdf.
  15. National Board of Health and Welfare. Centre for Epidemiology, Statistics—Health and Diseases. Cancer Incidence in Sweden 2005, http://www.socialstyrelsen.se/Lists/Artikelkatalog/Attachments/9329/2007-42-3_2007423.pdf.
  16. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2007/results_merged/sect_23_prostate.pdf.
  17. The Encyclopedia of the Nations, http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/index.html.
  18. Office by National Statistics, The UK population: by ethnic group, Census, April 2001.
  19. “Befolkningsstatistik 2000, del 3,” Stockholm: Statistiska Centralbyran,Statistics Sweden, 2001.
  20. P. Bazely and C. Catteau, “Direction de la recherché, des études, de l’évaluation et des statistiques DREES. Etat de santé,” offre de soins dans les départements d’Outre-mer, Guadeloupe, Guyane, Martinique, Réunion no.14, juin 2001.
  21. WHO World Health Statistics, “WHO Core Health Indicators database,” 2008, http://apps.who.int/whosis/database/core/core_select.cfm?strISO3_select=ALL&strIndicator_select=ALL&intYear_select=latest&language=english.
  22. FAO Food Balance Sheets, “National indices of dietary fat supplies. Countries ranked fat energy ratio of national food supply 1988–1990 Fats and oils in human nutrition,” Report of a Joint Expert Consultation Organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization Rome, FAO, Rome, Italy, October 1993.
  23. FAOSTAT, “FAO Statistical Yearbook 2009,” The Statistics Division FAO 2009, http://faostat.fao.org/site/368/default.aspx#ancor.
  24. Eurostat Statistical Books, “The use of plant protection products in the European Union. Dtat 1992–2003,” 2007, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-76-06-669/EN/KS-76-06-669-EN.PDF.
  25. US-EPA, “2000-2001 Pesticide Market Estimates: Historical Data,” http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/pestsales/01pestsales/historical_data2001_3.htm.
  26. H. Grönberg, “Prostate cancer epidemiology,” The Lancet, vol. 361, no. 9360, pp. 859–864, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Belpomme, “Cancer and the environment: facts, figures, methods and misinterpretations,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 611–613, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. W. G. Nelson, A. M. De Marzo, and W. B. Isaacs, “Prostate cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 4, pp. 366–381, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. J. Schaid, “The complex genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. R103–R121, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Irigaray and D. Belpomme, “Basic properties and molecular mechanisms of exogenous chemical carcinogens,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 135–148, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Kvåle, A. Auvinen, H. O. Adami et al., “Interpreting trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the five Nordic countries,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 24, pp. 1881–1887, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. F. Altekruse, C. L. Kosary, M. Krapcho et al., Eds., “SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2007,” National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md, USA, November 2009,http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2007/.
  33. S. J. Freedland and W. B. Isaacs, “Explaining racial differences in prostate cancer in the United States: sociology or biology?” Prostate, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 243–252, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. Ben-Shlomo, S. Evans, F. Ibrahim et al., “The Risk of Prostate Cancer amongst Black Men in the United Kingdom: the PROCESS Cohort Study,” European Urology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 99–105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. S. Whittemore, L. N. Kolonel, A. H. Wu et al., “Prostate cancer in relation to diet, physical activity, and body size in blacks, whites, and Asians in the United States and Canada,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 652–661, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Etzioni, K. M. Berry, J. M. Legler, and P. Shaw, “Prostate-specific antigen testing in black and white men: an analysis of medicare claims from 1991–1998,” Urology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 251–255, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. F. Angwofo, “Migration and prostate cancer: an international perspective,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 90, pp. S720–S723, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. S. Cook, M. Goldoft, S. M. Schwartz, and N. S. Weiss, “Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the prostate in Asian immigrants to the United States and their descendants,” Journal of Urology, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 152–155, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. N. Kolonel, “Fat, meat, and prostate cancer,” Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 72–81, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  40. T. Shirai, M. Asamoto, S. Takahashi, and K. Imaida, “Diet and prostate cancer,” Toxicology, vol. 181-182, pp. 89–94, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. Giovannucci, E. B. Rimm, G. A. Colditz et al., “A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 85, no. 19, pp. 1571–1579, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. M. Lee, R. T. Wang, A. W. Hsing, F. L. Gu, T. Wang, and M. Spitz, “Case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in China,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 545–552, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Dubuisson, F. Héraud, J. C. Leblanc et al., “Impact of subsistence production on the management options to reduce the food exposure of the Martinican population to Chlordecone,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 5–16, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. J. Key, N. Allen, P. Appleby et al., “Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1,104 cases in a prospective study of 130,544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC),” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 119–124, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. C. Bosland, “The role of steroid hormones in prostate carcinogenesis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, no. 27, pp. 39–66, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. Modugno, J. L. Weissfeld, D. L. Trump et al., “Allelic variants of aromatase and the androgen and estrogen receptors: toward a multigenic model of prostate cancer risk,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3092–3096, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. Belpomme, P. Irigaray, L. Hardell et al., “The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens,” Environmental Research, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 414–429, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Landau-Ossondo, N. Rabia, J. Jos-Pelage et al., “Why pesticides could be a common cause of prostate and breast cancers in the French Caribbean Island, Martinique. An overview on key mechanisms of pesticide-induced cancer,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 383–395, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. M. C. R. Alavanja, C. Samanic, M. Dosemeci et al., “Use of agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer risk in the agricultural health study cohort,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 157, no. 9, pp. 800–814, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. Settimi, A. Masina, A. Andrion, and O. Axelson, “Prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides in agricultural settings,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 458–461, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. K. Mills and R. Yang, “Prostate cancer risk in California farm workers,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 249–258, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. M. Ritchie, S. L. Vial, L. J. Fuortes, H. Guo, V. E. Reedy, and E. M. Smith, “Organochlorines and risk of prostate cancer,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 692–702, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. Hardell, S. O. Andersson, M. Carlberg et al., “Adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the risk of prostate cancer,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 700–707, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. Multigner, J. R. Ndong, A. Giusti et al., “Chlordecone exposure and risk of prostate cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3457–3462, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus