Table 1: Summary of potential protumour and antitumour roles of TNF in PCaPCa.


Involvement in the initiation of castrate resistant PCa by inducing hypersensitivity to androgen (LNCaP cells) [12]
Induces neutrophil production of myeloperoxidase, which generates carcinogenic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypochlorous acid[27]
Induces in vitro chemotaxis and proliferation of endothelial cells at low doses[29, 30]
Upregulates E-, P-, and L-selectin ligands on LNCaP cells, which may facilitate extravasation to bloodstream[31]
Increases expression of MMP-9, fibronectin and decreases E-Cadherin by PC-3 cells[32]
Involvement in epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity via Snail[32]
May stimulate tumour proliferation and reduce apoptosis via PGE2[33]


Induces regression of normal prostate[22]
Inhibits in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis at high doses[30, 34]
Induces apoptosis of LNCaP cells[35, 36]
Stimulates antitumour immunity by enhancing the generation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells (CTL)
Also prevents TGF-β-mediated inhibition of CTL generation
[7, 37, 38]
Induces production of other cytokines (e.g., IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ) and cytotoxic factors (e.g., NO and ROS) by macrophages and NK cells[7]
Protects dendritic cells from tumour-induced apoptosis[39]