Figure 3: Study design to investigate the predictive potential of markers of field cancerization for pre-surgical neo-adjuvant therapies (black box), including the testing of novel agents in phase II clinical studies. Instead of applying surgical treatment with curative intent as a consequence of diagnosis of cancer at biopsy (white boxes), markers of field cancerization are assessed at the time of biopsy and after neo-adjuvant therapy (grey boxes) to determine its efficacy.