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Prostate Cancer
Volume 2012, Article ID 327253, 11 pages
Review Article

Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Mechanisms, Targets, and Treatment

Oncology Division, Hospital de Santa Maria, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, 1649-039 Lisbon, Portugal

Received 26 September 2011; Revised 1 December 2011; Accepted 20 December 2011

Academic Editor: William L. Dahut

Copyright © 2012 Teresa Maria Santos Amaral et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), who progress after docetaxel therapy, had until very recently, only a few therapeutic options. Recent advances in this field brought about new perspectives in the treatment of this disease. Molecular, basic, and translational research has given us a better understanding on the mechanisms of CRPC. This great investment has turned into a more rational approach to the development of new drugs. Some of the new treatments are already available to our patients outside clinical trials and may include inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis; new chemotherapy agents; bone-targeted therapy; and immunotherapy. This paper aims to review the mechanisms of prostate cancer resistance, possible therapeutic targets, as well as new options to treat CRPC.