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Prostate Cancer
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 560857, 12 pages
Research Article

Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

1Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 217 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
2Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
4Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
5Tobago Health Studies Office, Scarborough, Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago
6Cancer Prevention Institute of California, Fremont, CA 94538, USA
7Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
8Department of Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
9The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, UK
10Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
11Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
12Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Dakar, Senegal
13Department of Preventive Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
14School of Medicine and Sylvester Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller, Miami, FL 33442, USA
15The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
16Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02138, USA
17Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
18Guyana Cancer Registry, Ministry of Health, Queenstown, Guyana
19Department of Urology and the Cancer, Therapy and Research Center, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
20Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
21School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
22National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
23Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Center for Equal Health, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
24School of Clinical Medicine and Research, University of the West Indies, Nassau, Bahamas
25Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
26Department of Epidemiology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
27Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Urology, Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA
28Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
29Korle Bu Teaching Hospital and University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana

Received 17 March 2012; Accepted 8 October 2012

Academic Editor: Folakemi Odedina

Copyright © 2013 Timothy R. Rebbeck et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.