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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2012, Article ID 308097, 10 pages
Clinical Study

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

1Institute of Brain, Behavior and Mental Health, School of Community-Based Medicine, University of Manchester, Jean McFarlane Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
2Manchester Mental Health and Social Care Trust, Manchester M21 9UN, UK
3Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust, Lytham Hospital, Warton Street, Lytham FY8 5EE, UK
4University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
5Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford M6 8HD, UK
6Academic Clinical Psychiatry, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S5 7JT, UK

Received 1 July 2011; Revised 13 March 2012; Accepted 31 May 2012

Academic Editor: Gregory P. Crucian

Copyright © 2012 Iracema Leroi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Neuropsychiatric symptoms commonly complicate Parkinson’s disease (PD), however the presence of such symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) specifically has not yet been well described. The objective of this study was to examine and compare the prevalence and profile of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with PD-MCI (n = 48) to those with PD and no cognitive impairment (PD-NC, n = 54) and to those with dementia in PD (PDD, n = 25). PD-MCI and PDD were defined using specific consensus criteria, and neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed with the 12-item Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Self-rated apathy, depression, and anxiety rating scales were also administered. Over 79% of all participants reported at least one neuropsychiatric symptom in the past month. The proportion in each group who had total NPI scores of ≥4 (“clinically significant”) was as follows: PD-NC, 64.8%; PD-MCI, 62%; PDD 76%. Apathy was reported in almost 50% of those with PD-MCI and PDD, and it was an important neuropsychiatric symptom differentiating PD-MCI from PD-NC. Psychosis (hallucinations and delusions) increased from 12.9% in PD-NC group; 16.7% in PD-MCI group; and 48% in PDD group. Identifying neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD-MCI may have implications for ascertaining conversion to dementia in PD.