Table 1: Cognitive training programs for patients with Parkinson’s disease (revised).

Author(s)Total Randomized studyLength of treatmentTreatmentCognitive targetsOutcome measuresResults

Sinforiani et al.   20No12 1-hour sessions over 6 weeksComputerized software for neuropsychological trainingAttention, abstract reasoning, visuospatial Babcock’s story, FAS, Raven matricies, Corsi-test, WCST, and Stroop PD patients improved on Babcock’s story, FAS* and Raven matrices and at 6 months gains maintained. No differences from baseline on digit span, Corsi-test, WCST*, and Stroop after training.
Mohlman et al.   14No4 90-minute sessions over 4 weeks Attention process trainingSustained, selective, alternating, and divided attentionDigits backward, Stroop, Trail Making Test B, FASImprovement on digits backward, Stroop, Trail Making Test B, and FAS posttreatment. On average, self-ratings were given for “some” to “much” progress, enjoyment, and effort in the program.
Sammer et al.   26 Yes 12 cognitive training 14 standard treatment10 30-minute sessions during a 3-4 week rehabilitation hospital stay. Working memory tasksExecutive functions BADSCognitive Training Group significant improvement on BADS*
París et al.   33Yes 18 Cognitive Training Group 15 Control Group12 45-minute sessions over 4 weeks Computerized software and paper-pencil exercisesAttention/working memory, memory, psychomotor speed, executive functions and visuospatial Digits forward, Stroop, ROCFT, semantic fluency, Trail Making B, TOL, PDQ-39 and CDSCognitive Training Group had more improvement than Control Group after treatment on the Digit Span Forward, Stroop Word Test, ROCFT, semantic fluency, Trail Making B, and TOL. No group differences on the PDQ-39 or CDS.

*Note: BADS: behavioral assessment of dysexecutive syndrome, FAS: phonological word fluency test; WCST: Wisconsin card sorting task; ROCFT: Rey-osterrieth complex figure test, TOL: tower of London, PDQ-39: Parkinson’s disease questionnaire-39; CDS: cognitive difficulties in ADLs.