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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2012, Article ID 920953, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/920953
Review Article

Dopamine Oxidation and Autophagy

1Molecular & Clinical Pharmacology, ICBM, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Independencia 1027, Santiago 8380453, Chile
2Department of Basic Sciences, Santo Tomas University, Viña del Mar 2561780, Chile

Received 5 June 2012; Accepted 9 July 2012

Academic Editor: José Manuel Fuentes Rodríguez

Copyright © 2012 Patricia Muñoz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The molecular mechanisms involved in the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease remain unclear. Currently, there is a general agreement that mitochondrial dysfunction, α-synuclein aggregation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and impaired protein degradation are involved in the neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease. Aminochrome has been proposed to play an essential role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, the formation of neurotoxic α-synuclein protofibrils, and impaired protein degradation. Here, we discuss the relationship between the oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome, the precursor of neuromelanin, autophagy dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin, and the role of dopamine oxidation to aminochrome in autophagy dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons. Aminochrome induces the following: (i) the formation of α-synuclein protofibrils that inactivate chaperone-mediated autophagy; (ii) the formation of adducts with α- and β-tubulin, which induce the aggregation of the microtubules required for the fusion of autophagy vacuoles and lysosomes.