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Parkinson’s Disease
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 475854, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/475854
Review Article

Orthostatic Hypotension in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Atypical Parkinsonism

1Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Novum 5th Floor, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
2Firoozgar Clinical Research Development Center (FCRDC), Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 15937-48711, Iran
3Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden

Received 15 October 2013; Accepted 11 December 2013; Published 2 February 2014

Academic Editor: Tan E. King

Copyright © 2014 Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad and Johan Lökk. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is one of the commonly occurring nonmotor symptoms in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) and atypical parkinsonism (AP). We aimed to review current evidences on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of OH in patients with IPD and AP. Major electronic medical databases were assessed including PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase up to February 2013. English-written original or review articles with keywords such as “Parkinson’s disease,” “atypical parkinsonism,” and “orthostatic hypotension” were searched for relevant evidences. We addressed different issues such as OH definition, epidemiologic characteristics, pathophysiology, testing and diagnosis, risk factors for symptomatic OH, OH as an early sign of IPD, prognosis, and treatment options of OH in parkinsonian syndromes. Symptomatic OH is present in up to 30% of IPD, 80% of multiple system atrophy (MSA), and 27% of other AP patients. OH may herald the onset of PD before cardinal motor symptoms and our review emphasises the importance of its timely diagnosis (even as one preclinical marker) and multifactorial treatment, starting with patient education and lifestyle approach. Advancing age, male sex, disease severity, and duration and subtype of motor symptoms are predisposing factors. OH increases the risk of falls, which affects the quality of life in PD patients.